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FutureStarr#EricaMena Net Worth - How Much Is #EricaMenaWorth in 2023?
As a model, Erica Mena has made a huge name for herself. She is best known for her appearances on the VH1 reality show Love & Hip Hop: New York.
She has a net worth of $1 million. She has also written two books.
Erica Mena, who is known for her appearance in the VH1 reality show Love & Hip Hop: New York, has a net worth of $1 million. She has also earned a significant amount of money as an actress and model.
She started modeling when she was a teenager and gained much attention for her striking looks and unique style. She has appeared in dozens of men's magazines and campaigned for brands like Tommy Hilfiger and Roca Wear.
Her success can be attributed to her talent and hard work. She has starred in several popular shows, including "Kourtney and Khloe Take Miami" and "Love and Hip Hop: New York."
Despite her difficult childhood and adolescence, she managed to overcome her struggles to become a successful model, actress, and television personality. Her hard work and passion for the industry have helped her build a fortune and a reputation as a powerful force in the entertainment industry.
Before she became famous, Mena struggled with a strained relationship with her father. He suffered from substance abuse and was physically abusive to her and her mother. She has also spoken about her father's addiction and how it impacted her life.
According to her, the only reason she was able to survive her childhood and adolescence was because she had a grandmother who raised her. Her mother was also a drug addict and suffered from mental health issues. She was often absent from her home during her youth, and it made it difficult for Mena to form close relationships with her family members.
She has worked with a number of different artists, including Akon, Chris Brown, and Fabolous. She has also appeared in many music videos.
Her autobiographical books have gotten her a good income. She has also partnered with high-end brands to sell her products.
In addition to her earnings from the media, she has a substantial amount of money from her personal investments. She owns a white BMW G-Wagon and a home in New Jersey. She has also purchased an apartment in New York City.
She is currently married to rapper Safaree Samuels. They got engaged on Christmas Eve in 2018 and they married a month later on October 7, 2019. She is the mother of two children, a daughter named Safire and a son called Legend.
Erica Mena is an American model, actress, and former reality star who gained fame through her appearances on VH1's Love & Hip Hop: New York. She has also appeared in several glamour magazines and written two books about her life.
Born on November 8, 1987, in Newburgh, New York, she grew up in a troubled family with a drug dealer father and a dysfunctional mother who struggled with addiction. Her childhood was difficult and her mother spent time in prison. However, she worked hard and managed to achieve success in her career.
She started her modeling career as a teenager and has since modeled for various brands in the industry. She has even starred in music videos for various celebrities.
Her first accomplishment in her modeling career was winning a MTV Jennifer Lopez look-alike contest when she was only 14. She was then signed with a modeling agency and began showing up in different music videos for celebrities like Chris Brown, Akon, and Fat Joe.
In 2013, she was signed to the reality show Love & Hip Hop: New York. The show helped her gain fame and boosted her net worth.
She has worked on many music videos and has campaigned for some big brand names including Tommy Hilfiger, Rocawear, and L'Oreal. She has also been featured in several glamour magazines, including MAXIM KING and The Source.
Although she is a successful reality TV star, her real success is in the modelling world. She has a beautiful body and poses for many magazines, including XXL.
Her modeling career began when she was 14 and her popularity soared as she gained more and more attention. She has won numerous awards and is the face of many magazines, including Maxim king and The Source.
In addition to her modeling career, she is a talented singer and has released numerous songs. She has also appeared on television shows and has done voice overs for various commercials.
The singer is married to rapper Safaree Samuels, and they have a son named King. But the relationship didn't last long, and they were separated in 2021.
As a model, Erica Mena has earned a decent amount of money. She has been able to work with many different brands, such as Tommy Hilfiger and L'Oreal. She has also appeared in music videos, and she has made a name for herself in the industry.
When she was young, she took up modeling and started competing in local contests. After winning her first competition, she was able to land modeling jobs with several different brands.
Since then, she has continued to build her reputation as a model. She has appeared in a number of fashion shows and photoshoots, and she has also launched her own clothing line.
She has also made a name for herself on reality television. She is known for her appearance on Love & Hip Hop: New York and has worked as a model for a number of high-end brands, including Tommy Hilfiger and Roca Wear.
After her success as a model, she has ventured into writing. She has authored a number of books, including Underneath It All and Chronicles of a Confirmed Bachelorette.
Her income is mostly from her modeling and TV appearances, but she has a few other sources of income as well. She also has a fashion line and sells her own cosmetics, so she is able to make a good amount of money from those sales.
In addition to her career as a model, she has also done some acting and is known for her roles in several movies. She is currently working on her next film project and has recently been signed to a production company.
As a model, she has received a lot of attention for her striking looks and unique style. She has appeared in a number of high-profile fashion shows and has a number of famous fans who follow her on social media.
She is best known for her role on the VH1 series "Love & Hip Hop: New York." This show follows the lives of hip hop artists and their love interests, and she has been very popular with viewers.
Erica Mena is a former model, actress, and reality star who has appeared in numerous television shows. She has earned a significant amount of money from her roles on TV shows like Love & Hip Hop: New York and Atlanta. She has also written two books.
She was born in 1987, and she was raised in the Bronx, New York City. Her father was a drug dealer, which caused problems for her family. She was forced to live in a foster home when she was five years old.
In her early years, she started modeling. She appeared on the covers of various magazines, and she eventually worked with brands such as L'Oreal and Tommy Hilfiger. She later went on to write a book, titled "Underneath It All."
Her career in the media has helped her earn millions of dollars. She has appeared in several television shows and has been featured on many music videos. She has even been a brand ambassador for several big names in the American music industry, including Chris Brown and Akon.
As a singer, she has released two albums and has been touring the world. She has sold a few million copies of her songs. She has also written a couple of books, titled “Chronicles of a Confirmed Bachelorette” and “Underneath It All.”
The most important part of her income is her modeling. She has worked for a number of high-end brands, and she has starred in several music videos. She has also contributed to some major reality shows, such as 'Kourtney and Kim Take Miami' and 'VH1 News Presents: Hip Hop Videos'.
She has a son named King, who was born on March 1, 2007. He is 14 years old at the time of publication. The boy's father is her ex-partner Raul Conde.
Since her debut, she has been a part of various reality shows and other television programs. She has been featured on the show “Love & Hip Hop: New York” for four seasons.
Her income has increased dramatically since her starring role in the show. She has been paid to speak on behalf of Fortune 500 companies. She has also been used as a video vixen for famous musicians such as Akon and Chris Brown.
American television personality and former model and video vixen Erica Mena was born on November 8, 1987. Her family comes from Dominican and Puerto Rican descent.
She began her career in the modeling industry at a young age. She has modeled for many well-known brands including L'Oreal and Tommy Hilfiger. She also became a video vixen for many music stars. This has helped grow her net worth.
Love and Hip Hop: New York is a reality series that follows the lives of women in the hip-hop industry. It has a wide cast of characters, including DJs and radio personalities, stylists, video vixens and glamour models. It also features celebrity boyfriends and girlfriends, as well as aspiring rappers.
Erica Mena is an American television personality and model who has earned a decent amount of money from her career. She is known for her appearances in a number of reality shows, including Love and Hip Hop: New York.
Her net worth is estimated to be $1 million. She has accumulated this wealth through her appearances on various TV shows, music videos and book writing.
Initially, she became famous for her guesting on the hit reality show Love & Hip Hop: New York. She was later a series regular on the show's sixth season, where she dated rapper Lil Wayne.
She is also a star on the show's spin-off Love & Hip Hop: Atlanta, and has appeared in several other shows. She has also launched her own clothing line called HER.
The Love and Hip Hop franchise consists of many different shows, each focusing on the life of a woman in the hip-hop industry. Its earliest installments focused on four aspiring rappers, but the franchise has expanded to include talent managers, producers, DJs and radio personalities, as well as stylists and glamour models.
As a result, the reality show has a huge number of celebrity guests, including the likes of Juelz Santana, Snoop Dogg, Cam'ron, Rich Dollaz and Cardi B. It also features many other celebrities, including singers Sofi Green and Major Galore, rappers Raul Conde and Jade Wifey, and radio personality DJ Drewski.
Mena has been in several relationships, including a relationship with rapper Bow Wow, who she was engaged to before their break-up. She has also been romantically linked with actor Shad Moss and rapper Rich Dollaz.
In addition to her work as a reality television star, Mena has also worked as a model and released her own clothing line. She has an estimated net worth of $1 million as of 2022.
As a former model, Erica Mena is a widely recognized figure in the hip-hop and rap world. She began her career in the industry at age 14, appearing on ad campaigns for L'Oreal, Tommy Hilfiger, and Rocawear. She also appeared on the cover of Maxim, King, and XXL magazines. She is also an author, releasing two autobiographies, Chronicles of a Confirmed Bachelorette and Underneath It All.
She has been in many relationships and currently resides in Atlanta with her husband, Safaree Samuels. They have two children together, and she is a mother to them both.
While she and her husband are both proud of their two children, it seems like she is struggling to provide for them. In a recent episode of Love & Hip Hop: Atlanta, she expressed her frustration with the amount her ex-husband, Safaree Samuels, was ordered to pay in child support for their two children.
According to Celebrity Net Worth, Erica Mena has a net worth of $1 million as of 2022. She has earned a lot of money from her modeling career and appearances on television shows.
In addition to her modeling and acting roles, she has also earned a lot of money from her fashion line. Her clothing line includes items like hoodies, jeans, dresses, and jackets.
She is a mother and a reality TV star who has starred in the VH1 show Love & Hip Hop: New York and its Atlanta edition. She has appeared in several other reality shows as well.
Her appearances on VH1's series have helped her earn a substantial amount of money. She has been able to earn a salary of up to $400,000 per season.
The reality star has also made a good amount of money from her book releases. She has written two books, "Chronicles of a Confirmed Bachelorette" and "Underneath It All," which have sold quite well.
As a celebrity, Mena has a very active social media presence. She uses her Instagram account to share photos of herself and her children with her fans. She has over 2.5 million followers on the platform. She is known for her honesty and openness in her personal life, which is why she is a favorite of many fans.
Erica Mena is a reality TV personality and former model. She has earned a decent net worth from her career and has become a celebrity in the world of television. Her net worth is estimated to be $1 million.
She has also been a video vixen for big stars in the music industry, such as Chris Brown and Akon. This has helped her increase her net worth by several thousand dollars.
As an actress, she has appeared in numerous movies and television shows. She has also written two books. Her writing has also helped her boost her net worth.
Goddard was born on December 23, 1957, in Hackney, London, England. She is a popular British television presenter and actress, most notably for her talk show, Trisha.
Her earliest career was as an air stewardess in Australia during the 1980s, but she soon decided to pursue a more stable career in television. In 1998 she joined ITV as the host of Trisha, a daytime chat show which was produced by Anglia Television and won a BAFTA.
She also worked as a travel writer for magazines and chaired the Australian Government's National Community Advisory Group on Mental Health. She had a panelist appearance on ITV's Loose Women, and hosted the ITV religious fantasy drama The Second Coming in 2003.
After her work in the UK, she moved to New York City in 2010 and has been living there since. She lives with her dog and cat and enjoys hiking, reading and watching her favorite television shows.
As a model, she has worked with many different modeling agencies and brands such as L'Oreal, Tommy Hilfiger, and Roca Wear. She has also appeared on the cover of many well-known magazines including King, Maxim, and The Source.
She has a huge social media following, and she often shares updates about her life with fans. She has also been a brand ambassador for various companies.
She is also an author of two books, and her latest book, Underneath It All, is based on her experiences as a Bachelorette. She has been married to rapper and actor Safaree Samuels, and they have two children. One, Safire Majesty, was born in 2020 and the other, Legend, was born in 2021.
Kourtney and Khloe Take Miami is a reality show that follows sisters Kourtney and Khloe Kardashian as they travel to Miami to open a new Dash boutique. It originally aired in 2009 and was the first spin-off from the popular Keeping Up with the Kardashians franchise.
Erica Mena, who was born in Miami, Florida on November 30, 1985, started her career as a model at the age of 14. She was 14 when she won her first contest and since then, has not stopped making a name for herself. She has worked with many famous designers and brands, including Tommy Hilfiger and Maxim magazine.
She has also been featured in many music videos, including those by Young Gunz and Raul Conde. She has also been seen in numerous magazine covers and print campaigns.
Her modeling career got off to a great start when she won the Jennifer Lopez Look-Alike Contest. She quickly became a big star and her success helped her land a role on Love & Hip Hop: New York.
During her early career, she was a model for MAXIM KING and XXL magazines. She was also a part of Tommy Hilfiger's print media campaign and her appearances in these publications got her a lot of exposure.
Then, she began appearing on shows like 106 and Park, CSI: Cyber, Bad Girls Club and The Master of None. She was later promoted to the main cast of the series, Love & Hip Hop: New York.
In Miami, she has been in several relationships, including her relationship with rapper Bow Wow. She dated him for two years before they split. She also dated Raul Conde, who she had a son with called King Conde.
On her social media accounts, she regularly posts pictures of her family and children. She also shares updates on her pregnancy and shares her thoughts on the latest news in Miami.
As a model, she has appeared in many fashion magazines and she has been seen in several television shows. She was featured in Kourtney and Khloe take Miami, The Show with Vinny, 106 and Park, CSI: Cyber, and Master of None among others.
If you are a fan of reality show Love & Hip Hop, then you probably know Erica Mena. The talented model is a cast member on the show and has an impressive net worth.
The 31-year-old American TV personality has an amazing height of 1.75 m and weighs 60 kg. She has a beautiful figure and is definitely a beauty to watch out for!
Erica Mena is a famous reality star who has earned millions of dollars through her modeling career. She has also written numerous books. Her net worth is estimated to be $1 million as of 2023. She earns most of her money through modeling gigs and brand sponsorships.
The 35-year-old model is a well-known figure on the television scene and has appeared in various music videos for renowned artists like Chris Brown, Fabolous, and Fat Joe. Her appearances on reality shows such as Kourtney and Kim Take Miami and Love & Hip Hop: New York helped her to build her popularity.
She is known for her beautiful looks and voluptuous body. She stands at 5 feet 7 inches and weighs about 146 pounds. Her bust is 38 inches and her waist is 24 inches. Her legs are also very long and give her a very attractive figure.
Mena is of Puerto Rican and Dominican descent, which makes her a part of the Hispanic community. She was born in the Bronx, New York and has American citizenship by birth.
Though her father was a drug dealer, the reality star has managed to overcome a troubled childhood and a short period of schooling to become a famous figure in the entertainment industry. Her success came from her determination and dedication to succeed in life.
Her family is a very important aspect of her life and she spends a lot of time with them. She is a very loving and caring person who always tries to make her family happy.
As a matter of fact, she is so popular that she has an enormous fan base and receives tons of attention on social media. In her posts, she frequently shares photos of her family and fans love to comment on them.
Despite her recent divorce, Mena is still very active on social media. She has a huge fan following and regularly updates her followers about her new projects. She is also an author, and her book, Underneath It All, has been very popular among fans. This book is a good source of additional income for Mena, who is now living a much more single life and is able to focus on her career rather than chasing after a husband.
The American model and reality TV personality Erica Mena is one of the best known models in the world. She has been in the media for over 10 years and has appeared in a variety of different TV shows. Her success can be attributed to her hard work and dedication. She has also been featured in several fashion magazines and has even written two books about her life.
She has an exotic almond-shaped face and a sculpted body that can make you fall in love with her. Her long lustrous black hair flows in waves and her eyes are usually black, but she is also known to dye her hair blonde from time to time.
Her height is 5 feet 9 inches or 175 cm and her weight is about 60 kg. She is a beautiful latina with a sensual body that can make any woman want to scream.
According to her social media profiles, she is a proud mother of two children. She has a daughter named Safire Majesty Samuels and a son named Legend Brian Samuels. She and her husband are also expecting their third child.
When she was a teenager, she competed in MTV’s teen talent show and won. She has since appeared in a wide range of music videos and made her name in the industry. Her most famous appearance was as a vixen in Chris Brown’s video for “Yo!” (Excuse Me, Miss). She also appeared in music videos for artists such as Fat Joe, Akon, and Rich Dollaz.
She has also worked as a sales associate for Kourtney Kardashian at their Dash Miami fashion store. She has also been involved in the production of her own clothing line, HER by Erica Mena, which she launched in 2015.
Her net worth is estimated to be $1 million as of 2023. She has earned this money from her modeling gigs and brand sponsorships. She has also published a couple of books about her life and dating experiences.
She is a talented and successful model who has an enviable body. She works out regularly to stay in shape and has a strong core. She loves to eat healthy foods and cooks a lot of fresh meals for her family. She also takes her children for walks to keep them active.
When it comes to a beautiful model, there is no one who can compete with Erica Mena. Her body is incredibly hot and gorgeous, and she's a role model to young women all over the world.
She is a successful American TV personality and a former model and video vixen. She first gained fame through her appearances on Love & Hip Hop: New York. She also appeared on Kourtney & Khloe Take Miami, and Love & Hip Hop: Atlanta.
Her net worth is estimated to be $1 million in 2023. She earned her income from modeling gigs, brand sponsorships, and book royalties. She has an incredible Instagram following of over 5 million followers and is an avid social media user.
On her Instagram account, she posts pictures of her daily life and her work. Her photos are frequently liked by her followers. She also shares videos of her work, including her appearance on the reality show Love & Hip Hop: Atlanta and her fashion line with Fashion Nova.
According to her Instagram profile, she is 5 feet 9 inches tall and weighs about 68 kilograms. She has a slim and beautiful body. She also has a pair of dark brown eyes and black hair.
She is also active on Twitter and Facebook, where she has over 750k and 90k followers, respectively. She also has her own YouTube channel. She has been a co-host on Bad Girls Club: Social Disruption and she has written two books, titled Chronicles of a Confirmed Bachelorette and Underneath It All.
In 2019, Mena got engaged to rapper Safaree Samuels. They married in October of that year and welcomed their first child, a daughter named Safire Majesty Samuels.
When they decided to divorce, Mena was surprised that Samuels would only pay her $4,300 per month in child support. She was even more disappointed when she realized that the money was not enough to pay for her children's college expenses.
Despite this, she was able to make up her mind and settle on a new man, a fellow rapper called Bow Wow. However, he cheated on her and made her feel like a failure.
The famous American TV personality & model Erica Mena is a very successful business woman. Her net worth is estimated to be around $1 million as of 2022. Her major sources of income include modeling gigs, brand sponsorships, and book royalties. She also has a small fashion line that she sells.
She started her career as a model at the age of 14 when she won the MTV 'Jenifer Lopez Look-Alike' contest. After winning the contest, she was offered a job at 'Dash Doll' Miami store which was owned by Kourtney Kardashian. Unfortunately, Mena was fired from her position because of her reckless behavior. She is currently the mother of a child named King Conde with rapper Raul Conde.
Despite her success as a model, she is not rich enough to live the lifestyle she desires. She enjoys spending time with her family and friends. She spends a lot of time with her daughter and she loves to travel.
Her father is a drug dealer, which makes it difficult for the family to survive financially. She is a proud Latina and has Puerto Rican and Dominican ancestry. She is also a talented writer who has published two books.
As a model, she has appeared on the covers of several magazines and has modeled for brands such as L'Oreal, Tommy Hilfiger, and Roca Wear. She is also a regular contributor to the popular online fashion site, Stylecaster.
She has been featured in several reality shows and has gained a large following on social media. She has over 670,000 followers on Twitter and almost 4 million followers on Instagram.
For her fans, she has also created a YouTube channel where she talks about her personal life and shares recipes and fitness tips. She has over a million subscribers on her video channel and her followers are loyal.
In her spare time, she enjoys reading a good book and listening to music. Her favorite musical artist is Katy Perry.
She has been married twice. Her first husband was Chinx Drugz and her second was Shad Moss. She and Chinx Drugz dated for a year before they broke up in 2014. After their split, she was involved with rapper Shad Moss until they got engaged in 2015. She is also dating basketball player Cliff Dixon since 2017.
Erica Mena is an American model, media personality, and entrepreneur. She is best known for appearing on Love & Hip Hop: New York.
She started her career as a model in her teenage years when she won a look-alike contest for Jennifer Lopez. Since then, she has worked for a variety of modeling agencies and has appeared in many music videos for well-known singers like Chris Brown, Fabolous, Akon, and Fat Joe.
Ethnicity is a term used to describe the distinctive cultural characteristics, languages, religions, or behavioural patterns that are shared by a group of people. Ethnicity is similar to race in that it identifies people on the basis of their shared origin, but differs in that ethnicity usually focuses on cultural characteristics rather than physical traits like skin color and hair texture.
The concept of ethnicity is a complex one, and there are many approaches to the topic. Some approaches focus on the earliest stages of human history, while others emphasize modernity. Some approach ethnicity on the basis of kinship, whereas others use a system of linguistic and cultural identity to define groups.
Mena is a model, actress, and television personality who is best known for appearing on the reality show Love & Hip Hop: New York. She has dated various celebrities and has also appeared in a number of music videos.
Her appearances in reality shows have helped her to become a household name and has added a significant amount of sums to her net worth. She is also a writer and has written several books. Her most popular book is called Underneath it all, which details her childhood and her relationship with her father.
Before she became famous, she was an ordinary young girl who had a rough childhood and a short period of schooling. However, she fought for a better life and has now made it big.
In addition to modeling, she is also an actor and has appeared in many different movies. She has been a part of several reality shows and has also tried her hand at writing.
She was born on 8th November 1987, in The Bronx, New York and is of mixed Puerto Rican and Dominican descent. She is a talented performer and has been very active in the entertainment industry since 2001.
Despite her difficult background, she has made it big as a television star and is considered to be one of the most successful women in the industry. She has been able to make a good living out of her career and has an estimated net worth of $1 million as of 2023.
Nationality is the sense of belonging to a particular nation, a state, or region. It often refers to the country in which you were born and raised, but it can also be based on ethnicity or religion. It can be a complex issue, however, and it can change over time.
Throughout history, there have been numerous definitions of nationality, and they can vary from country to country. In the United States, for example, a person may be considered a national of a certain state or even country if they have lived there for a long period of time and their family ties to that state or region remain strong.
In Europe, on the other hand, nationality can be defined as a person's subjective sense of belonging to one specific state or region and it is often influenced by their family and cultural roots. It is usually a more subjective and personal feeling, though there are cases where it can be determined by official documentation as well.
A person's nationality can be a very important thing to consider, especially for those who are looking for employment in a particular country. It can also be a way to protect yourself from certain discriminations.
Erica Mena is a model and television personality who has appeared on Love & Hip Hop: New York and Kourtney & Khloe Take Miami, among others. She has also written several books including Underneath it All and Featherbone.
Her parents are Puerto Rican and Dominican immigrants, which makes her an American citizen by birth. She was raised in the Bronx, New York and is a native of the area. She is a famous model and has worked for several major brands.
When she was 14 years old, she won a contest called the "Jennifer Lopez look-alike." This experience gave her the confidence to pursue her modeling career. She became a featured fashion model for various clothing lines, and she was also featured in many music videos for artists such as Chris Brown and Lil Wayne.
She is also known as an entrepreneur and author of several novels. Her net worth is estimated at $1 million. She has a daughter and a son, both of which she shares with her ex-husband Safaree Samuels. She has filed for divorce from her husband and filed for joint legal custody of their daughter, Safire Majesty Samuels.
Ancestry refers to your ancestors and genetic relationships. The term "ancestry" is often used to mean a general connection to people or things in the past, but in the context of genetic studies it is more specifically defined as a relationship between you and your ancestors.
The ancestry of an individual reflects their genetic history as well as the relationship of their ancestors to other individuals, in particular those who share the same genetic makeup. This is often a key feature of genetics research, as it can help to identify ancestors from different geographic regions and time periods who may be associated with certain diseases or risk factors.
Aside from genetic relationships, ancestry also often reflects the family structures that an individual grew up in. This can influence their sense of identity and how they choose to live their lives. For example, a person who grows up in an ethnically diverse environment may be more likely to have relationships with people from their own community than those of different racial or cultural groups.
For this reason, it is important to understand the ways in which the ancestry of an individual can influence their perception of themselves and their place in the world. For instance, a person who is from a poor background may be more susceptible to the social and financial disadvantages that come with being in an impoverished area.
Alternatively, a person who is from a richer background may be more tolerant of those from lower-income backgrounds. This can lead to the creation of a more inclusive society, which can in turn affect an individual's perception of themselves and their place in the world.
This is a complex topic, and a number of different approaches have been used to address it. In some cases these can be useful in helping to shed light on specific questions of interest, but they can also lead to misleading outcomes.
One common approach is to describe ancestry in terms of a "global" set of ancestries, which can be represented as a series of "nodes" in an admixture graph. However, this approach is problematic because it can be difficult to know whether the ancestry of an individual corresponds with genetic risk at particular loci, or if they represent a mixture of ancestry from different populations.
The relationship between religion and politics has been analyzed by a number of scholars. This has included a variety of topics, including the political theology of religious groups (Philpott 2007; Fox 2013, 85), co-operation with government officials, and state-religious interaction.
However, the theoretical framework is not well developed. The capacity and ambition of the different religious actors is difficult to measure at macro-level and qualitative research that employs long time spans is required to truly appreciate the complex state-religious interaction.
While religious groups can be repressive, they can also be supportive of a regime in terms of material benefits and policy concessions. This is a function of the collective action resources that religious actors have at their disposal, including, but not limited to, public pulpits, political connections, places of worship, organizational resources, financial resources, leadership skills, and congregants.
In this context, it is not a surprise that authoritarian countries can co-opt religion through funding and institutional inclusion. The latter is a convenient means of exercising control over religious groups, as it allows the state to benefit from these groups without actually directly engaging in repressive activities.
Furthermore, the regime can gain access to these institutions through co-optation of representatives of the religious group, such as bishops or clergy, who are in a better position to influence the policies and laws that govern their religion than government officials. This could be achieved by using various channels to co-opt the religious actors, such as joint church-parliament commissions or informal legislative proposals.
Moreover, religious parties may be used for this purpose as well. They can be a tool to co-opt religious groups, as they have a large number of members and an important economic presence in the country.
Finally, there is a wide variety of ways that a regime can regulate its religion in repressive countries, such as laying negative restrictions on the collective action resources of religious groups. This may include the control of public pulpits, places of worship, and political connections; the limitation or elimination of co-operation with government officials; and the repression of the political theology of religious groups.