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Seed Tree Publishing is a nonprofit literary arts organization founded in 2013, which sponsors literary and creative writing workshops for struggling teens and adults who are often overlooked by the traditional publishing systems. We are a team of volunteers committed to offering creative writing workshops to underserved populations and providing creative writing resources for those who want to publish and promote their own work through Seed Tree Publishing.The objective of this curriculum is to incorporate aspects of tree seed knowledge into agricultural curricula for technical colleges, and to adapt the content of tree seed science curricula currently taught in forestry colleges. The colleges produce extension officers who train and advise farmers on all aspects of production and conservation. The ultimate goal is to provide technical knowledge to farmers' efforts to intensify tree planting and management. Enhanced technician knowledge and skills in tree seed and seedling management will help to reduce risks in tree planting schemes.
Forestry colleges already teach many of the topics identified in these modules. However, the modules on tree seed enterprises, and especially the community-based approaches, are lacking. Some sub-topics are new to forestry education. A curriculum is a dynamic instrument that should be reviewed from time to time. It is recommended that every five years colleges review the content of their tree seed curricula, as they, hopefully also review the rest of the programme. The balance between theory and practicum may be adjusted according to needs. Each practical hour is equivalent to two hours of fieldwork.The most appropriate strategy to restore degraded agricultural landscapes involves the reconstruction of native plant communities through re-colonization of native flora, reforestation or afforestation (Stanturf et al. 2014). Restoration can be achieved using tree species (active restoration), relying on natural re-colonization, or through assisted natural regeneration (passive restoration).
Both approaches have been discussed as restoration options to re-vegetate the highlands of Ethiopia (Abiyu et al. 2011). In the past, reforestation programs with plantation species were successful due to the fast growth of such species and their well-known management practices (Zanne and Chapman 2001; Lemenih and Teketay 2006). While these plantations improve soil fertility (Lemma et al. 2006; Abiyu et al. 2011), they do not have any positive effect on biodiversity (Chazdon 2008) and therefore represent an incomplete first step of a restoration process (Stanturf et al. 2001). Assisted natural regeneration and natural regeneration rank highest on the restoration ladder (sensu Chazdon 2008) with the highest ranks in biodiversity and ecosystem services at the lowest associated cost. These approaches, however, have the highest requirements in terms of spatial distribution of residual vegetation or biological legacies (Bannister et al. 2014). In order to achieve cost-efficient and timely restoration, a combination of mixed passive and active restoration strategies are favored in certain situations (Bannister et al. 2014). Thus, strategies and methods of forest restoration may follow different paradigms depending on stakeholder objectives, regional climate and degree of degradation (Jacobs et al. 2015). (Source: forestecosyst.springeropen.com)