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Dong, Wenjiang; Ni, Yongnian; Kokot, Serge (February 2015). "Differentiation of mint (Mentha haplocalyx Briq.) from different regions in China using gas and liquid chromatography". Journal of Separation Science. 38 (3): 402–9. doi:10.1002/jssc.201401130. ISSN 1615-9314. PMID 25431171. Did you know that there are over 4,000 varieties of peppermint and each variety has its own unique, distinct taste? In this blog, I’ll be sharing all about the many different varieties of peppermint, some of the interesting things about mint and peppermint and some of the uses for wild peppermint - with no man-made flavors or technology.
One of the few native mints, this aromatic perennial has glands containing essential oils, and the leaves are used as flavorings in sauces, jellies, and beverages. The genus name Mentha comes from Mintho, mistress of Pluto, ruler of Hades. His jealous queen, Proserpine, upon learning of Mintho, trampled her, transforming her into a lowly plant forever to be walked upon. Pluto made this horrible fate more tolerable by willing that the more the plant was trampled, the sweeter it would smell. The 4-lobed and nearly symmetrical clusters of flowers along the stem distinguish this so-called "true mint" from many others that have flowers in slender spikes at the stem tips or in upper axils.Studies carried out on the chemical composition of the plant have shown that the main chemical compounds present in M. longifolia essential oil are monoterpenes [Figure 1], particularly oxygenated ones such as pulegone, menthone, isomenthone, menthol, 1,8-cineole, borneol, and piperitenone oxide.
 Among them, menthol is the most important component responsible for most of the pharmacological effects of the plant.[6,7] It is a waxy, crystalline substance, clear or white in color, which is solid at room temperature and melts at slightly high temperatures. Mentha is also found in the essential oils of other members of the mint family (Mentha spp.) such as peppermint and horse mint. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis has shown that the main compounds within essential oil of M. longifolia are: Menthol (19.4-32.5%), menthone (20.7-28.8%), pulegone (7.8-17.8%), 1,8-cineole (5.6-10.8%), which have imperative roles in various effects of this plant. This article reviews the pharmacological effects of the total extract [Table 2] and the most active ingredient [Table 3] of M. longifolia (menthol) and its applications in traditional folk medicine [Table 1]. (Source:www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov)