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Erythronium is a genus of flowering plants in the lily family. The genus includes the common names of false red campion and erythronium. Its flowers have a bright apricot color, which attracts hummingbirds looking for nectar.Erythronium includes about 20–30 species of hardy spring-flowering perennial plants with long, tooth-like bulbs. Slender stems carry pendent flowers with recurved tepals in shades of cream, yellow, pink and mauve. Species are native to forests and meadows in temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Erythroniums are widely grown as ornamental plants, with numerous hybrids and cultivars having been selected for garden use. Popular cultivars include Erythronium 'Pagoda', E. 'Sundisc', E. 'Joanna', E. 'Kondo', E. 'Citronella', E. californicum 'White Beauty', and E. 'Rosalind'. Propagation is best by seed in autumn or by division of bulbs, depending on species. Some species propagate vegetatively. The plant is also great as a ground cover, as it will spread over several years.
With the right choice of plants, shady areas can be just as colourful and beautiful as the sunnier parts of the garden. It’s all down to selecting plants which will thrive in the lower light levels and bloom at different times of the year to provide a non-stop colour flow which just keeps on giving. For reliable spring colour, no shady border should be without Erythronium, also known as Dog’s Tooth Violet! Erythronium are wonderfully elegant with their slender, upright stems which each carry multiple blooms with exotic-looking reflexed petals. But their long lasting and pretty flowers aren’t their only asset. They also have attractive foliage too, some with striking mottled markings to add to their charm and extend the season of interest and ground cover right through to summer.
Robertson, K. R. 1966. The genus Erythronium (Liliaceae) in Kansas. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 53: 197–204. Shevock, J. R., J. A. Bartel, and G. A. Allen. 1990. Distribution, ecology and taxonomy of Erythronium (Liliaceae) in the Sierra Nevada of California. Madroño 37: 261–273. Erythronium is a genus of 20-30 species of bulbs in the lily family (Liliaceae) found in meadows and forests in temperate North America, Europe, and Asia, with most of the species native to western North America. Most of these spring-blooming perennials – commonly called trout lilies or dog-tooth violets – prefer cool, damp climates and dappled shade and many species are difficult to establish and grow outside of their native range. The hybrid called ‘Pagoda’, however, is a vigorous plant that is an outstanding addition to gardens in zones 4-9 (and probably to zone 3 with mulch). It was awarded the Royal Horticultural Society’s Award of Garden Merit in 1993. (Source:hort.extension.wisc.edu)