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A woodland plant that I’ve fallen in love with over the years is European native Cardamine trifolia. Plants of the genus Cardamine (pronounced car-dam-in-ee) are commonly known as bittercress, which at the mention of that name, many nursery professionals call foul and whip out the penalty flags! After further review however, Cardamine trifolia is a dainty, graceful gem in the woodland garden, while its cousin, Cardamine hirsuta, or hairy bittercress, is an invading thug that flings its seeds with explosive force, sometimes up to 10 feet or more. The former is a beautiful, well-controlled evergreen groundcover, the latter, a menacing scourge.
Cutleaf toothwort or pepper root is one of more than 150 species in the genus Cardamine, a group of annuals and perennials in the mustard family (Brassicaceae) that occur worldwide. Native to much of the eastern half of North America as far west as the Dakotas down to Texas in zones 3-8, Cardamine concatenata is one of the earlier spring wildflowers of moist forests and woods. This small spring ephemeral was formerly known as Dentaria laciniata, so sometimes is listed as that or C. laciniata or D. concatenata. There are several other species of Cardamine that are native to Wisconsin, as well as two weedy types (C. flexuosa and C. hirsuta) that were introduced from Europe. The common name of toothwort refers to the tooth-like projections on the underground stems (actually leaf scars from the previous seasons growth). The leaves and rhizomes are edible (with a spicy flavor inspiring the common name of pepper root) and the plants were used medicinally by indigenous peoples.
Collinearity analysis uncovered a whole genome duplication (WGD) event and segmental duplication after WGD (Fig. 1b; Supplementary Fig. S2 and Table S9). KEGG analysis revealed that ferroptosis was the most highly enriched term (Supplementary Table S10). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the divergence time between Cardamine and Arabidopsis thaliana was ~16 MYA, while that between C. enshiensis and Cardamine hirsuta (2n = 16).Huang, C., Ying, H., Yang, X. et al. The Cardamine enshiensis genome reveals whole genome duplication and insight into selenium hyperaccumulation and tolerance. Cell Discov 7, 62 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41421-021-00286-x (Source: www.nature.com)