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FutureStarrAWhat Is a Period in the Periodic Table
A group of atoms that, when combined in the right proportions, form a chemical compound. Atoms are called "elementary" because they are each bonded together by a single chemical bond.
A period in the periodic table is a row of chemical elements. All elements in a row have the same number of electron shells. Each next element in a period has one more proton and is less metallic than its predecessor. Arranged this way, groups of elements in the same column have similar chemical and physical properties, reflecting the periodic law. For example, the halogens lie in the second-last column (group 17) and share similar properties, such as high reactivity and the tendency to gain one electron to arrive at a noble-gas electronic configuration. As of 2021
The periodic table has undergone extensive changes in the time since it was originally developed by Mendeleev and Moseley. Many new elements have been discovered, while others have been artificially synthesized. Each fits properly into a group of elements with similar properties. The periodic table is an arrangement of the elements in order of their atomic numbers so that elements with similar properties appear in the same vertical column or group. (Source: courses.lumenlearning.com)
The figure below shows the most commonly used form of the periodic table. Each square shows the chemical symbol of the element along with its name. Notice that several of the symbols seem to be unrelated to the name of the element: Fe for iron, Pb for lead, etc. Most of these are the elements that have been known since ancient times and have symbols based on their Latin names. The atomic number of each element is written above the symbol.
A period is a horizontal row of the periodic table. There are seven periods in the periodic table, with each one beginning at the far left. A new period begins when a new principal energy level begins filling with electrons. Period 1 has only two elements (hydrogen and helium), while periods 2 and 3 have 8 elements. Periods 4 and 5 have 18 elements. Periods 6 and 7 have 32 elements because the two bottom rows that are separated from the rest of the table belong to those periods. They are pulled out in order to make the table itself fit more easily onto a single page. (Source: courses.lumenlearning.com)