Studies have found upwards of over eighty different aroma compounds present in samples. Of particular interest to perfumers and aroma chemists is cyclopentadecanolide, which although present in small quantities (< 1% in roots, <.5% in seeds), gives angelica root a distinctive musky aroma. For instance, one study published in 2019 explored the use of angelica archangelica as an antitumor agent in the treatment of breast cancer. But the research so far has been limited to rodent and in vitro studies (test tubes). There is no way to know if there may be a benefit for humans.



A principal contributor to cerebral infarction and atherosclerosis is believed to be initiated by an excessive inflammatory-fibro-proliferative response [19]. Atherosclerosis involves growth factors, cytokines and vaso-regulatory factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGH), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor -α (TNF-α) [19, 20]. Cytokines are both pro- and anti-atherogenic; for example, IL-1 and TNF-α mediate the production of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) to induce monocyte migration directly into the intima. By contrast, cytokines can induce NO production which regulates the vasomotor tone of artery, thereby influencing the initiation and progression of the atherosclerosis process [20]. A previous study [21] found that nicotine can mediate the development and progression of atherosclerosis via the inhibition of TGF-β1 and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). The alteration of TGB-β activity leads to the atherosclerotic change of vessel wall and increased TGB-β signaling plays a protective role of atherosclerosis [22]. A study [23] reported that bFGF enhances smooth muscle migration and proliferation via the regulation of interstitial collagenase expression in the early stages of atherosclerosis.

Wang et al. [24] found that the levels of TGB-β reduced and those of bFGF increased in human umbilical vein endothelial cells damaged by hyperlipidemic serum. Moreover, under electromicroscopy the morphology of endothelial cell was also damaged which was reversed by Danggui (20 mg/ml) and its component of sodium ferulate (0.3 mg/ml). These results indicate that both Danggui and sodium ferulate have anti-atherogenic effects [24]. Yu et al. [25] found that the levels of total cholesterol (TC, 0.95 mmol/L vs. 11.79 mmol/L), triglyceride (TG) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC) increased in rabbits on a high-lipid diet compared to the control group which was on a normal diet. After 25% Danggui was administered (i.v.) for four weeks, the levels of TG decreased from 3.52 mmol/L to 1.68 mmol/L. The plaque area of thoracic aorta was also reduced after Danggui treatment, from 63.31% to 35.58% [25]. Moreover, Danggui reduced the increase of the serum malonyldialdehyde (MDA) levels caused by the high-lipid diet [25]. In a similar study [11], after treatment with sodium ferulate, the plaque area of thoracic aorta was reduced while the TG level was reduced to 1.75 mmol/L in rabbits on a high-lipid diet [11]. Moreover, the sodium ferulate-treated group increased the production of NO from epithelium cells. Both Danggui and sodium ferulate inhibit the formation of atherosclerosis because Danggui reduces the TG and lipid peroxidation levels or increases NO production, or both. [Studies on original plant of traditional Chinese drug "bai zhi" (radix Angelicae Dahuricae) and its closely related wild plants. III. Comparison of coumarins of "bai zhi" with those of closely related wild plants]. (Source: pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov)


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