ABastard Toadflax

ABastard Toadflax

Bastard Toadflax

The central stalk, branches, and pedicels of each inflorescence are light green to light reddish green, terete, and glabrous. Individual pedicels are up to �" long. The blooming period occurs from late spring to early summer, lasting about 1 month for a colony of plants. Usually, relatively few flowers are in bloom at the same time in each inflorescence. There is no noticeable floral scent. Afterwards, the flowers are replaced by small oily drupes spanning about �" across. Each thin-fleshed drupe contains a single large seed that is globoid in shape. The drupes gradually change color from green to brown, and they are said to have a sweet taste while still immature. The root system is fibrous and long-rhizomatous. Colonies of clonal plants are often produced by the thick woody rhizomes. The fibrous roots send out underground suckers (haustoria) that parasitize other plants. As a result, Bastard Toadflax is hemiparasitic.


The native Bastard Toadflax occurs occasionally in most areas of Illinois, but it is less common in the southern section of the state (see Distribution Map). This plant can be locally abundant at some high quality sites. Habitats include black soil prairies, sand prairies, hill prairies, rocky open woodlands, thinly wooded ridges, sandy savannas, and barren areas with scrubby vegetation. Bastard Toadflax is usually found in higher quality natural areas with other native plants. Populations of this plant tend to increase when they are exposed to occasional wildfires or light to moderate grazing.The preference is full or partial sun, mesic to dry conditions, and an acidic to neutral soil containing loam, sand, or rocky material. This plant is an alternate host of Comandra Blister Rust (Cronartium comandrae). This fungal disease also attacks hard pines (Pinus spp.). Bastard Toadflax is partially parasitic on the root systems of a wide variety of plants, including grasses, forbs, shrubs, and trees.

The nectar and pollen of the flowers attract Halictid bees (Lasioglossum spp.), Andrenid bees (Andrena spp.), soldier flies (Stratiomyidae), Syrphid flies, flesh flies (Sarcophagidae), Calliphorid flies, and Muscid flies. Less common floral visitors include various long-tongued bees, butterflies, and beetles (Robertson, 1929). The larvae of a moth, the Ochre-patched Epermeniid (Ochromolopis ramapoella), feed on the fruits of Bastard Toadflax. Other insects feeding on this plant include the polyphagous larvae of such Tortricid moths as the Oblique-banded Leafroller Moth (Choristoneura rosaceana), the Sparganothis Fruitworm (Sparganothis sulfureana), and the Pallid Leafroller Moth (Xenostemna pallorana); see Godfrey et al. (1987). It has been reported that the small oily fruits are eaten by birds and rodents (Hedgcock & Long, 1915; Mielke, 1957). Such animals may carry the fruits and their seeds for considerable distances, introducing this plant to new areas.Bastard Toadflax is semi-parasitic, feeding on other plants through its rhizomes. The DNR lists 2 varieties in Minnesota: var. pallida, which has a waxy coating on leaves, and var. umbellata, which lacks the waxy leaves. There are no herbarium records of var. pallida in Minnesota but it is most likely to be in western counties. (Source: www.minnesotawildflowers.info)


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