wild plants of nebraska

wild plants of nebraska

Nebraska Wildflowers

There’s nothing quite like the landscape of football to immerse you in a community. The shirt you are wearing chants for your school. The stadium isn’t just your stomping ground; you play for more than just your team. Standing next to the stadium is an open field where the seats become grass and you can feel the energy of the players and the crowd even before the game begins.Soest; Germany) and tap water was available ad libitum. Facility conditions were: temperature: 22 ± 2°C; humidity: 55 ± 5%; 12 h artificial light/12 h dark cycle: light on at 7:00 a.m.). All procedures were carried out according to the guidelines of the Ethics committee, Medical University of Vienna, and were approved by Federal Ministry of Education, Science and Culture, Austria. The animals are subsequently used in another study, the present tests representing a pretest to that. The follow-up study requires this number of animals and at the same time allows multivariate statistics.


The elevated plus maze is a common test to assess anxiety (Belzung and Griebel, 2001). It consists of a cross of two closed arms with side walls and two open arms. Rats and mice usually prefer to stay in closed arenas and avoid the exploration of open arenas (Carobrez and Bertoglio, 2005; Arantes et al., 2013). Thus, the longer the animals stay on open arms the lesser they are considered to be anxious. The elevated plus maze consists of two plus shaped plastic lanes (10 cm in width, 1.10 m in length at a height of 62 cm), with one lane (closed arm) surrounded by black plastic walls (40 cm in height), except at the crossing point with a gap of 10 cm, so that each arm had a length of 50 cm. The animals were placed in this center and allowed to explore the maze for 5 min. The movements were recorded by a tracking system and stored on a computer. The ratio of the time (s) the animals spent in the closed and the open arms (EPMRCO), the ratio of distances traveled and the rest in closed and open arms (EPMRDOC), the local movement (EPMlocal, <10 cm/s) and the number of entries into the open arms were considered for the analysis. The last three variables were choosen in order to compare it with corresponding variables in the open field (Carola et al., 2002) with regard to locomotion and the motivation to explore open arenas (the exploration of the central arena in the open field was almost invariant between animals).

Hester v. United States first introduced the doctrine that the Fourth Amendment protection does not extend to open fields. Governmental intrusion and information collection upon open fields do not constitute searches or seizures under the Fourth Amendment. Expectation of privacy in an open field is not considered as reasonable or legitimate, even if there are fences or “no trespassing” signs around the field. Open fields may include any unoccupied or undeveloped area outside the curtilage.Some states reject open field doctrine and confirm protection under state law of privately owned open lands from warrantless searches and seizures, where a reasonable person should know that the occupant intends to exclude public and precautions have been taken. For instance, in State v. Dixon, the Supreme Court of Oregon held that Article I, Section 9 of the Oregon Constitution, i.e. the search and seizure provision, applies to privately owned lands outside the curtilage of a residence. (Source: www.law.cornell.edu)




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