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In the list experiment method, there are two lists of questions. The first one is a list of non-sensitive questions and the second one includes one sensitive question in addition to non-sensitive questions. These two lists are presented to two groups of participants; the baseline group (control) and the treatment group. Respondents only need to state the number of items that are true about them. If these two groups provide truthful responses to the questions, the rate of the sensitive question can be estimated. This estimate is the product of the difference between the average responses in the treatment and baseline groups. If the sample respondents are randomly chosen from the target population, and other sources of bias are negligible, an accurate and bias-free estimate can be achieved. To increase the sample size and reduce estimate error, the technique can be applied twice to the same sample using a different list of non-sensitive questions each time. This is known as the double list experiment (11).
One of the strong points of our study technique was that respondents did not have to respond to sensitive questions directly which increased their trust, the questionnaire was very easy to complete and no special tool or skill was needed, and it took only 10 minutes of the participants’ time. A large sample size of 813 participants is another advantage of our study. Additionally, we tried to assess different types of publication misconduct to determine prevalence differences, while other studies addressed only one or two types of misconduct. (Source: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov)
The two node links allow traversal of the list in either direction. While adding or removing a node in a doubly linked list requires changing more links than the same operations on a singly linked list, the operations are simpler and potentially more efficient (for nodes other than first nodes) because there is no need to keep track of the previous node during traversal or no need to traverse the list to find the previous node, so that its link can be modified.
The first and last nodes of a doubly linked list are immediately accessible (i.e., accessible without traversal, and usually called head and tail) and therefore allow traversal of the list from the beginning or end of the list, respectively: e.g., traversing the list from beginning to end, or from end to beginning, in a search of the list for a node with specific data value. Any node of a doubly linked list, once obtained, can be used to begin a new traversal of the list, in either direction (towards beginning or end), from the given node. (Source: en.wikipedia.org)