Eiffel Tower: Information & Facts
Whether you're lucky enough to possess visited Paris or have only ever dreamed of going there, likelihood is you recognize of the French capital's most beloved landmark: the Eiffel Tower.
The Eiffel Tower, old master Eiffel in French, was the most exhibit of the Paris Exposition — or World's Fair — of 1889. it had been constructed to commemorate the centennial of the French Revolution and to demonstrate France's industrial prowess to the planet.
World's Fair centerpiece
Gustave Eiffel, a French technologist, is typically credited with designing the tower that bears his name. However, it had been actually two lesser-known men, Maurice Koechlin and Emile Nouguier, who came up with the initial drawings for the monument.
Kochlin and Nouguier were the chief engineers for the Compagnie des Etablissements Eiffel — Gustave Eiffel's engineering firm. along with Eiffel and a French architect, Stephen Sauvestre, the engineers submitted their plans to a contest that may determine the centerpiece for the 1889 World's Fair in Paris.
The Eiffel company's design won, and construction of the wrought-iron tower began in July 1887. But not everyone in Paris was thrilled with the thought of an enormous metal monument looming over the town.
Even to contemporary eyes, the tower is exclusive. But within the late 19th century, nothing had been seen prefer it. "Modern architecture was emerging slightly in Paris before the tower. But it had been doing it in an exceedingly very shy way," said Gudek Snajdar. Iron, which was newly popular as a artifact thanks to the economic Revolution, became a cornerstone of contemporary architecture. But in 1887, it had only appeared internally, as support structures, or in unimportant buildings like hothouses, factories and bridges.
"The biggest problem was that they still didn't understand how to create something aesthetically appealing with the new material. after they were using it, they'd try and repeat historic stone structures. it's extremely visible on — as an example, pillars within the Bibliotheque Ste.-Genevieve in Paris," explained Gudek Snajdar. "However, with the Eiffel Tower they changed completely the way they were using the new material. The structure, its appearance is totally new and modern."
When construction of the tower began on the Champs de Mars, a bunch of 300 artists, sculptors, writers and designers sent a petition to the commissioner of the Paris Exposition, pleading him to halt construction of the "ridiculous tower" that may dominate Paris sort of a "gigantic black smokestack."
But the protests of Paris' artistic community fell on deaf ears. Construction of the tower was completed in barely over two years, on March 31, 1889.
Construction of the Eiffel Tower
Each of the 18,000 pieces accustomed build the tower was calculated specifically for the project and ready in Eiffel's factory on the outskirts of Paris. The wrought-iron structure consists of 4 immense arched legs, assail masonry piers that curve inward until joining during a single, tapered tower.
Building the tower required 2.5 million thermally assembled rivets and seven,300 heaps of iron. to guard the tower from the weather, workers painted every inch of the structure, a feat that required 60 loads of paint. The tower has since been repainted 18 times.
Eiffel Tower fun facts
Gustave Eiffel used latticed iron to construct the tower to demonstrate that the metal may be as strong as stone while being lighter.
Eiffel also created the inner frame for the Statue of Liberty.
Construction of the Eiffel Tower cost 7,799,401.31 French gold francs in 1889, or about $1.5 million.
The tower is 1,063 feet (324 meters) tall, including the antenna at the highest. Without the antenna, it's 984 feet (300 m).
It was the world's tallest structure until the Chrysler Building was inbuilt ny in 1930.
The tower was built to sway slightly within the wind, but the sun affects the tower more. because the sun-facing side of the tower heats up, the highest moves the maximum amount as 7 inches (18 centimeters) off from the sun.
The sun also causes the tower to grow about 6 inches.
The tower weighs 10,000 tons.
There are 5 billion lights on the tower.
The French have a nickname for the tower: La Dame de Fer, "the Margaret Hilda Thatcher."
The first platform is 190 feet above the ground; the second platform is 376 feet, and therefore the third platform is nearly 900 feet up.
The tower has 108 stories, with 1,710 steps. However, visitors can only climb stairs to the primary platform. There are two elevators.
One elevator travels a complete distance of 64,001 miles (103,000 kilometers) a year.
A hallmark of contemporary architecture
The Eiffel Tower is certainly modern in its shape, which is distinct from the Neo-Gothic, Neo-Renaissance and Neo-Baroque styles that were popular within the 18th and 19th centuries, in keeping with Gudek Snajdar. But its material truly made it stand out.
"The tower was one amongst the primary samples of the fashionable architecture due to the iron," said Gudek Snajdar. "And the actual fact that the building did not have any purpose specifically." It existed purely to demonstrate French architectural creativity and skill with materials to the world; it had been imbued with meaning but not utility.
The tower is additionally a more democratic, and so modern, structure than other monuments of the time, per Gudek Snajdar. Gustave Eiffel insisted that elevators be included within the tower, but that they had to be imported from an American company because no French company could meet the standard standards, Gudek Snajdar said. "Because of the escalators, the building may be used as a tower from which Parisians and their visitors could enjoy a view on their city. That was something that was before only accessible to some wealthy people who could afford flying during a hot air balloon. But now, it absolutely was rather cheap and anyone could enjoy the view on a city from it," she explained.
"That's why it is a great example of a contemporary architecture. It's democratic and not only available to some of a wealthy people. But people of a unique social background could use it and revel in it."
Uses of the tower
The tower was intended as a brief structure that was to be removed after 20 years. But as time passed, people now not wanted to work out the tower go.
"After seeing the success of the tower during and after the planet Exhibition, many of the previous enemies of the project publicly apologized. By the time the Exhibition was over, most Parisians were happy with the structure," said Iva Polansky, a Calgary-based novelist and historian at Victorian Paris. "Although there remained some die-hards just like the novelist Guy de Maupassant, who continued to loathe the sight of it."
Gustave Eiffel was also not keen on seeing his favorite project dismantled, and then he set about making the tower an imperative tool for the scientific community.
Just days after its opening, Eiffel installed a meteorology laboratory on the third floor of the tower. He invited scientists to use the lab for his or her studies on everything from gravity to electricity. Ultimately, however, it had been the tower's looming height, not its laboratory, that saved it from extinction.
In 1910, town of Paris renewed Eiffel's concession for the tower due to the structure's usefulness as a radiotelegraphy transmitter. The French military used the tower to speak wirelessly with ships within the ocean and intercept enemy messages during war I.
The tower continues to be home to over 120 antennas, broadcasting both radio and tv signals throughout the capital city and beyond.
The tower today
The Eiffel Tower continues to be the centerpiece of Paris' cityscape. over 7 million people visit this iconic tower each year, in line with the attraction's official website. Since the tower's 1889 opening, 250 million people from round the world have enjoyed all that the Eiffel Tower has got to offer.
And it's plenty to supply. The tower's three platforms are home to 2 restaurants, several buffets, a banquet hall, a champagne bar and lots of unique gift shops. Educational tours of the tower are available for youngsters and tourist groups.
The tower is receptive visitors 12 months a year, with visiting times varying by season. From June to September, the tower remains open until after midnight. Rates vary, but visitors can expect to pay between $13 (10 euros) and $19 (14.5 euros) per person for access to the tower's three public lifts and 704 stairs. Tickets, including group-discounted tickets, is purchased online or at the ticket booth at the foot of the tower.
The tower "provided Paris with the foremost distinguishable silhouette," said Polansky. Its distinct look has made it a permanent symbol of Paris.