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FutureStarrWhat Happened at the Capitol on January 6, 2020?
One year ago, a violent mob stormed the Capitol grounds with the intent of disrupting Congress' certification of Joe Biden's election victory. Today, a House committee is investigating this attack.
Multiple groups and individuals are being charged for their involvement in the insurrection, including members of the Proud Boys. Some face charges of seditious conspiracy - a rare but serious offense which prosecutors allege shows there was an intent to incite violence against government forces.
On Tuesday, members of the Proud Boys were increasingly frustrated with the outcome of the 2020 election and anticipated a "civil war," according to testimony presented in court by their former leader. They were prepared for any transfer of power to Joe Biden if elected president, she testified under a seditious conspiracy charge brought against him and four lieutenants.
According to charging documents, Proud Boys leaders formed the "Ministry of Self Defense" in late December. They announced via group chat that they would not be wearing their usual black and yellow colors when they traveled to Washington, D.C.
But the charges against them include seditious conspiracy, which carries a potential sentence of up to 20 years in prison. According to the government's indictment, the defendants planned to invade and occupy "crucial buildings" at the Capitol on January 6 in an effort to prevent Biden from being sworn in as vice president.
Proud Boys national chairman Enrique Tarrio and friends Ethan Nordean, Joseph Biggs and Zachary Rehl are accused of conspiring to breach the police lines guarding Washington's Capitol. Prosecutors claim these three men - traveling together from Auburn, Washington - were among those responsible for breaching those barriers.
Another significant piece of evidence in the case is a message sent by Tarrio to a D.C. police lieutenant, who then forwarded it on to top intelligence officials at U.S. Capitol Police, according to Tarrio's attorneys.
Indictment documents indicate Tarrio was in regular communication with other Proud Boys weeks before the riot. His leadership team even organized for several of them to meet at a hotel and travel to Washington, D.C. for an event on Jan. 6, 2021 - the day of the riot!
The indictment also claims Tarrio was a driving force behind the riot and its aftermath, recruiting new members to further his ambitions. According to the prosecutor, he saw Biden's presidency as an existential threat to their group and sought to prevent him from being sworn in as vice president.
In January 2020, thousands of angry supporters marched on the United States Capitol in support of a conspiracy theory. Their aim was to overturn the results of an allegedly fraudulent presidential election.
These extremist groups included Oath Keepers and Proud Boys, as well as QAnon--a conspiracy movement which asserts America is run by left-wing pedophiles and deep state bureaucrats worshiping Satan. Many were armed and had been planning this invasion of the federal government for months beforehand.
QAnon supporters saw this uprising as a chance to spread their beliefs to the public. Notable figures such as former 8kun administrator Ron Watkins and pro-Trump attorneys Sidney Powell and L. Lin Wood embraced these narratives leading up to the election, giving legitimacy to QAnon supporters around the country.
According to a study released by START by the think tank, QAnon followers have committed ideologically motivated crimes such as harassment, rioting and assaults. Some even engaged in vandalism such as graffiti depicting guns.
According to START research, some QAnon adherents may be more violent than others but all are likely radicalized by the ideology driving their movements.
The START report is part of a larger initiative to comprehend domestic violent extremism in America. It utilizes data from multiple sources in order to identify potential threats to public safety.
In addition to traditional media outlets, social media platforms such as Telegram and Facebook are essential tools for identifying QAnon adherents who may be willing to commit criminal offenses. A study using offline speech information combined with social media monitoring reveals that QAnon followers are significantly more likely to engage in aggressive online behaviors than other Americans.
On Wednesday, Jacob Chansley--the furry-horned-hat wearing Arizona QAnon follower who led a mob through Ohio Clock Corridor--and Doug Jensen, 41-year-old masonry worker from Des Moines--were sentenced to three years and five months in prison for their roles in the riot. Chansley led by example by wearing an orange furry hat--led an angry mob through Ohio Clock Corridor before being overtaken by police video cameras. On top of that, Chansley received three years and five months imprisonment on Wednesday for his role in it all.
On January 6, 2020, Trump supporters were at the epicenter of an unprecedented attack on the Capitol. On that day, tens of thousands of Trump backers came to Washington for a rally and marched to protest President-elect Joe Biden's victory in the Electoral College.
Many Trump supporters are members of extremist organizations such as the Oath Keepers and Proud Boys. These groups have a history of violence against government officials and their allies.
The Oath Keepers are a neo-Confederate group that believes the US government is secretly controlled by Satanic pedophiles. Additionally, their members have a reputation for anti-Muslim sentiment.
They have a long-standing record of fighting against government agencies and their supporters, earning them the label of "hate groups." Furthermore, the group has been responsible for numerous violent attacks against minorities--especially black and Hispanic individuals--as well as involvement in several murders.
As for the actual events on January 6, there is no record of any Oath Keepers entering the Capitol that day. However, there are numerous accounts from people who were present at the rally but did not take part in any rioting that followed.
One account from Enrique Tarrio, a member of the Proud Boys who led a riot against election results on January 6. He writes in his Parler account that there will be a "Million Militia March" to disrupt Mr. Biden's inauguration on Jan. 20.
He writes that "if the government attempts to take away our rights, then we will stand up and fight like hell." One of his tweets from the rally read: "Be there; will be wild!"
Tarrio had indicated he would be wearing "black and yellow." Other members of the crowd who also donned this look were involved in the riot.
Additionally, the report states that Alex Kirk Harkrider from Carthage, Texas brought a tomahawk axe and handgun with him but left them in his car outside Washington D.C. before attending the rally.
On January 6, 2020, thousands of people gathered outside the Capitol building in Washington, D.C. to protest against police attempts to halt certification of 2020 election results. As a result, hundreds were arrested for assaults, disorderly conduct, weapons possession and other offenses.
Protesters had one goal in mind: to stop President Donald Trump's attempts to prevent official certification of the 2020 election results. They were driven by racism, fear of growing diversity, and a desire to regain power in America.
Many of the protesters came from all over America, but most lived in or around Washington, D.C. They represented a variety of political parties but all had one thing in common - their strong commitment to President Trump's agenda.
Some of the rioters were members of law enforcement or military. Additionally, there were some members of right-wing extremist group antifa among them.
As a result, there has been much confusion around what occurred on January 6 2020 and how to interpret the events at the Capitol. There have been many hoaxes, conspiracy theories and attempts to rewrite history in an effort to glorify the rioters as martyrs.
Additionally, the rioters' assertions about being welcomed into the Capitol are untrue. Most of those who entered were turned away even by those who wanted them to remain inside.
On the other hand, some claim that police officers welcomed rioters into the Capitol. This claim is often made by proponents of January 6 and their Republican allies who claim those who remained inside were treated with respect by officers.
Contrary to these assertions, the majority of January 6 protesters were not welcomed into the Capitol or treated with respect by police. More than 700 people have been charged for participating in these demonstrations, with more being arrested almost daily.
The French Revolution, which occurred between 1789 and 1799 in France, is widely considered a pivotal moment in European history. It had an immense impact on North America, inspiring the Declaration of Independence there as well.
In June 1789, a budget crisis led to the summoning of "notables" (prelates, nobility and some bourgeois representatives) for an assembly to discuss fiscal reforms. After refusing their support for such reforms, these groups unanimously voted to convene as Estates-General in June.
The French Revolution was one of the pivotal moments in European history. It profoundly affected how people perceived themselves, their society and ultimately, the world.
It also provided inspiration for the ideas of liberty, equality and fraternity that would become cornerstones in American culture. These principles formed the basis for both the Declaration of Independence and American Revolution.
In 1789, France's people were dissatisfied with their lives due to poor living conditions, food shortages and religious intolerances. Discontented with their king's inability to address these problems led them to demand a new government.
At the National Assembly, deputies voted to overthrow the monarchy and institute democracy. Unfortunately, King Abdullah II - who believed himself divinely chosen to rule his country - wasn't willing to accept these changes and attempted to suppress it with force by bringing army regiments from beyond his border and sending them to Paris.
When the King failed to deter deputies from their plan, they took their case to the public. In July, a popular uprising in Paris overcame their fear and took control of the National Convention.
As the uprising gained strength, King Henrique was ultimately forced to flee. Over the months that followed, thousands were executed by guillotine.
The Revolution had many causes, but the primary ones were the abolishment of estate systems, enlightenment ideas, absolutism and food shortages. These caused discontent among aristocracy, clergy and peasant-laborer class which was exploited by monarchies, feudatories and clergy alike.
In France during the 17th and 18th centuries, several intellectual currents contributed to its birth - most notably Voltaire, Rousseau, Montesquieu and John Locke. These thinkers promoted reform by asserting that aristocracy was founded on myth and government should be an expression of republican freedom.
One of the most significant documents to emerge from France during the Revolution was the Declaration of the Rights of Man. This declaration was inspired by Enlightenment theories regarding natural rights and upheld its principles of liberty, equality, and fraternity.
On August 26, 1789, a committee of the National Constituent Assembly adopted a document that marked an end to absolute monarchy and its privileges for aristocracy alike, ushering in democracy as the new form of government.
In its preamble, the Declaration proclaimed that every individual is endowed with certain inalienable rights such as freedom of speech and religion. Furthermore, it assured individuals the right to property and equal treatment under the law.
A few articles also addressed slavery. While the Declaration did not explicitly state that women should be free, it did stipulate that no one should be forced into servitude.
Another key principle emphasized by the Declaration was popular sovereignty. It declared that citizens in France had a right to decide how their country was run and that government should be responsive to public opinion.
This theory was an integral component of Enlightenment philosophy and often attributed as the catalyst for the French Revolution. It also formed the basis for many modern human rights standards such as those established in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948), established by the United Nations.
The French Revolution was a time of turmoil. The country was being attacked from all sides and civil war was breaking out in many regions. To combat these problems, the National Convention created the Committee of Public Safety in April 1793 to oversee public safety matters.
Maximilien Robespierre, a leading member of the Jacobin Club, headed up the Committee of Public Safety and was instrumental in ushering in what would come to be known as "The Reign of Terror".
At this time, people were being arrested and put to trial for their beliefs. They were accused of being enemies of the revolution and a danger to the republic.
If they were found guilty, they could be executed with a guillotine--a machine designed to cut people's throats.
The Reign of Terror was a period of severe repression in France during the French Revolution. It was initiated by radicals who sought to rid the country of any threats to their cause.
In September 1793, the Committee of Public Safety passed a law that made it easier to arrest anyone suspected of being an enemy of the revolution. Local committees of surveillance had the authority to compile lists of suspects and order their arrest.
Once arrested, they were tried by a court of revolutionaries for being an enemy of the revolution and eventually executed.
In addition to assassinating their political enemies, the Committee of Public Safety also promoted policies of dechristianization in France. These programs sought to mock Christianity and mock religion as a superstition.
The Directory was the final regime of France's Revolution, established in 1795 and lasting until November 1799. During their four years in power, they faced many difficulties such as economic troubles, foreign issues, and even civil war in Vendee region.
The Directory's initial problem was an enormous national debt. To address this, they implemented a system of octrois - taxes on trading licenses, land and moveable property that not only raised prices for goods but also helped stabilize government finances.
Another issue the government was confronted with were food shortages and devalued currency due to France's involvement in wars with Austria since the start of the Revolution.
These wars caused France to lose money and make it difficult for the government to pay its bills. To remedy this, The Directory introduced new taxes and established a system of centralised tax collection that helped stabilize France's finances.
Despite their best efforts to improve the country, the Directory failed to gain support from citizens. Historian Isser Woloch noted, "People felt disengaged, apathetic and cynical about their governments."
Napoleon Bonaparte toppled the Directory in November 1799, taking control of Egypt as a military leader with many victories on the battlefield. Through this coup d'etat, Bonaparte was able to remove the Directory and install his Consulate government instead - known today as Egypt's Consulate.
The Napoleonic Era is the time period that encompasses both the French Revolution and Napoleon Bonaparte's rule. For almost 15 years, Napoleon expanded his Empire throughout Europe.
During the Napoleonic Era, France and Britain engaged in numerous conflicts. France's army became known as "man on horseback" due to its numerous victories, while Napoleon gained notoriety as a world-renowned military strategist.
He was the pioneer of aerial tactics in warfare, launching his attacks from above with bombs and cannon. His methods were revolutionary for their time and forever altered warfare.
In 1804 Napoleon promulgated the Civil Code, which revolutionized French law and helped to stabilize society. It guaranteed political and legal equality to all adult men while creating a merit-based society where individuals could progress in education and employment regardless of birth or social status.
This Code also overturned some of the most extreme religious policies adopted by the Convention, such as abolishing privileges based on birth.
After a period of relative peace in 1807, war once again broke out between France and Russia. It was during this battle that Napoleon's reputation as an outstanding general was cemented, enabling him to spread his ideas of reform throughout Europe.
The Napoleonic Era was an exciting period in European history, and many books have been written about it. One of the best is Connelly's Satellite Kingdoms: Managing Conquered Peoples, which examines how France conquered various countries throughout Europe, their collaboration and resistance, as well as how they adjusted to Napoleon's plan for reorganisation.