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Rye Plant

Rye Plant

Rye Plant

Rye is grown primarily in Eastern, Central and Northern Europe. The main rye belt stretches from northern Germany through Poland, Ukraine, Belarus, Lithuania and Latvia into central and northern Russia. Rye is also grown in North America (Canada and the United States), in South America (Argentina, Brazil and Chile), in Oceania (Australia and New Zealand), in Turkey, in Kazakhstan and in northern China.

Rye

 

Production levels of rye have fallen in most of the producing nations, as of 2012. For instance, production of rye in Russia fell from 13.9 million tonnes (31 billion pounds) in 1992 to 2.1 million tonnes (4.6 billion pounds) in 2012. Corresponding figures for other countries are as follows: Poland – falling from 5.9 Mt (13 billion pounds) in 1992 to 2.9 Mt (6.4 billion pounds) in 2005; Germany – 3.3 Mt (7.3 billion pounds) to 3.9 Mt (8.6 billion pounds); Belarus – 3.1 Mt (6.8 billion pounds) to 1.1 Mt (2.4 billion pounds); China – 1.7 Mt (3.7 billion pounds) to 0.7 Mt (1.5 billion pounds). Rye cultivation probably originated in southwestern Asia about 6500 bce, migrating westward across the Balkan Peninsula and over Europe. Modern rye is grown extensively in Europe, Asia, and North America. It is mainly cultivated where climate and soil are relatively unfavourable for other cereals and as a winter crop where temperatures are too cool for winter wheat. The plant, which thrives in high altitudes, has the greatest winter hardiness of all small grains, growing as far north as the Arctic Circle.

This plant is a bunch type grass with many upright tillers. The leaves, like most small grains are rolled in the whorl. Flat leaf blades and dense flower spikes. Each large spike consists of many 2-flowered spikelets with long awns. Grain in relatively large. Rye has small or medium sized auricles which are not hairy. Leaf sheaths usually are hairy. Blue-green leaf color and leaves are less erect than other small grains. Seedlings sometimes are red tinted if stress. Rye, Secale cereale, is an herbaceous annual or biennial in the family Poaceae that is grown primarily for its grain. Rye has an erect slender stem topped with a curved spike which is 7–15 cm (3–6 in) length. The head is made up of individual spikelets each with two florets which produce 1–2 kernels. The spikelets and arranged alternately along the length of the head.The leaves of the plant grow from nodes on the stem and are lance-like blades, blue-green in color. Rye can reach 1–3 m (3.3–10 ft) in height and is either grown as an annual (spring rye) or biennial (winter rye). Modern rye does not occur naturally but is likely derived from wild ancestors found in Afghanistan, Iran and the Middle East. (Source: plantvillage.psu.edu)

 

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