Passiflora Incarnataor

Passiflora Incarnataor

Passiflora Incarnata

Passiflora incarnata probably has been expanding its range due to its preference for open, disturbed areas, possibly since prior to European settlement (K. J. Gremillion 1989). The species is probably native no farther north than southern Illinois and Ohio, central or southern Virginia, and central West Virginia (C. Frye and B. McAvoy, pers. comm.); it is very cold-hardy, and is introduced sporadically northwards (for example, G. Moore 1989; G. J. Wilder and M. R. McCombs 2002). This species can spread over large areas in well-drained soil, primarily by suckers from deep, far-spreading roots, and has been considered a weed of croplands (W. C. Muenscher 1980). Despite its aggressiveness, it is considered rare in some parts of its range (Indiana, Ohio).


Empirical searches were conducted via the databases Scopus® (http://www.scopus.com) [11], Scirus (http://www.scirus.com) [12], SciFinder® (http://scifinder.cas.org/) [13], Google Scholar (https://scholar.google.com.br/) [14], as well as periodicals using the following three keywords: ‘Passiflora incarnata’, ‘Passiflora edulis’, and ‘Passiflora alata’. Other keywords used with the genus Passiflora were extraction, pharmacophores, ADMET, flavonoids, and formulation. A search for clinical trials using the keywords ‘anxiety’ and ‘Passiflora’ were performed in the database ClinicalTrials.gov (https://clinicaltrials.gov), of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), an agency of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services [15]. All of the information about the plants, their past and present therapeutic uses, and data about marketing of herbal medicines in Brazil and outside Brazil, including species of Passiflora in combination with other active ingredients, were taken directly from selected papers and searched in the following websites: the National Institute of Industrial Property (Instituto Nacional de Propriedade Industrial, INPI), https://gru.inpi.gov.br/pePI/servlet/PatenteServletController [16]; National Health Regulatory Agency (Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária, ANVISA), https://consultas.anvisa.gov.br/#/medicamentos/, an agency of the Ministry of Health [17]; Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS Agreement) [18], the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia [19], Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) of the United Kingdom [20], and European Medicines Agency [21].

n phytochemical studies, some papers have reported that the flavonoids and alkaloids of Passiflora may be related to its anxiolytic properties [33–35]. Some variability of flavonoids may occur within this botanical genus throughout the year, and there are different methods to increase the concentration of these metabolites in the leaves [36]. The literature indicates that some species of Passiflora have differences in their flavonoid C-glycosides contents, and these differences are relevant to the characterization of their specific origins. For example, isovitexin is found in higher amounts in P. incarnata [33, 37], P. alata [38], and P. edulis var. flavicarpa and P. edulis var. edulis [38], although it was not detected in P. edulis var. edulis by Zucolotto and colleagues [39]. Moreover, orientin and vitexin are found in small amounts in the leaves of P. incarnata, P. alata, and P. edulis [37–40]. Furthermore, iso-orientin is one of the major flavonoids in P. incarnata and P. edulis var. flavicarpa, but it is only detected in small concentrations in P. alata [37–39]. Additionally some C-glycosides were identified in just one species, such as luteolin-6-C-chinovoside and luteolin-6-C-fucoside in P. edulis [24, 33] and 2″-xylosylvitexin in P. alata [33]. A comparative metabolite profiling and fingerprinting of the genus Passiflora leaves were reported using a multiplex approach of UPLC-MS and NMR analyzed by chemometric tools [41]. Thin layer chromatography can also be used in order to differentiate species [42]. Recently, new components were isolated and identified in the fruit peel of Passiflora edulis, including five flavonoids [43, 44]. (Source: www.hindawi.com)



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