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Oenothera biennis, commonly known as Evening Primrose or O. biennis, is a flowering plant in the Onagraceae family, native to North America and Central America. It is the state flower of Kansas. O. biennis, the Evening Primrose, is a common plant in temperate regions that grows from a tuber, producing yellow flowers.Oenothera biennis L. (OB), also known as evening primrose, belongs to the Onagraceae family. It is the most predominant and studied species of its family. With research conducted for more than 120 years on the entire family, the first reports of this plant are associated with the early development of genetics [5,6]. Originating in America (temperate and tropical climate zones), the Oenothera genus (the second largest genus of flowering plants) is currently present in various zones of the planet and include approximately 145 species, which are divided into 18 sections, from which 70 species can be found in Europe [5,6]. Evening primrose has the best studied biological activity of all the members of the family and possess a wide range of medicinal properties .
Liquid chromatogram of the Oenothera biennis L. (OB) extract. (chromatographic conditions: 280 nm and 340 nm, column EC 150/2 NUCLEODUR C18 Gravity SB 150 × 2 mm × 5 μm, mobile phases A: water acidified with formic acid at pH-3, B: acetonitrile acidified with formic acid at pH 3. Gradient chromatographic separation program: 0.01–20 min 5% B, 20.01–50 min 5–40% B, 5–55 min 40–95% B, and 55–60 min 95% B. The solvent flow rate was 0.2 mL/min at 20 °C, and compounds identification was done using external standards).Normal angiogenesis evaluation in chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. The OB extract (60 μg/mL) was applied next to the dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as the control; stereomicroscope photographs were recorded at 0 h, 24 h, 48 h and 72 h. CAM, chorioallantoic membrane; OB, Oenothera biennis; DMSO, dimethyl sulfoxide.
Ratz-Åyko et al. (2014) reported that OB seed extracts contained catechin, quercetin, gallic acid, and ferulic acid, while Zadernowski et al. (2002) highlighted that in OB seed extracts, there was the presence of flavonoids and hydroxicinamic acids (gallic, ferulic, syringic, protocatechuic, and p-hydroxybenzoic acids) at a concentration of 125 mg/kg of the total seed amount, including approximately 85 mg/kg in the free form, 27 mg/kg in the ester form, and 11 mg/kg in the glycoside form [47,50]. Regarding the individual polyphenols content, Karamac et al. reported a gallic acid range of 5 to 309 mg/g in some plant extracts like Camellia sinensis L., Arctostaphylos uva-ursi L., Corylus avellana L., Oenothera biennis L., and Vitis vinifera L . (Source:www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov)