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Apple Plant

Apple Plant

Apple Plant

An apple is an edible fruit produced by an apple tree (Malus domestica). Apple trees are cultivated worldwide and are the most widely grown species in the genus Malus. The tree originated in Central Asia, where its wild ancestor, Malus sieversii, is still found today. Apples have been grown for thousands of years in Asia and Europe and were brought to North America by European colonists. Apples have religious and mythological significance in many cultures, including Norse, Greek, and European Christian tradition.Apples grown from seed tend to be very different from those of the parents, and the resultant fruit frequently lack desired characteristics. Generally then, apple cultivars are propagated by clonal grafting onto rootstocks. Apple trees grown without rootstocks tend to be larger and much slower to fruit after planting. Rootstocks are used to control speed of growth and the size of the resulting tree allowing for easier harvesting.

Apple

Cultivation of the species, most likely beginning on the forested flanks of the Tian Shan mountains, progressed over a long period of time and permitted secondary introgression of genes from other species into the open-pollinated seeds. Significant exchange with Malus sylvestris, the crabapple, resulted in current populations of apples being more related to crabapples than to the more morphologically similar progenitor Malus sieversii. In strains without recent admixture the contribution of the latter predominates.The apple is thought to have been domesticated 4000–10000 years ago in the Tian Shan mountains, and then to have travelled along the Silk Road to Europe, with hybridization and introgression of wild crabapples from Siberia (M. baccata), the Caucasus (M. orientalis), and Europe (M. sylvestris).

Only the M. sieversii trees growing on the western side of the Tian Shan mountains contributed genetically to the domesticated apple, not the isolated population on the eastern side.A seedling rootstock is actually grown from the seed of an apple, often McIntosh or another common, hardy variety. Although you won't know exactly what you're getting with a seedling rootstock—every single seed is a genetically different individual —hardiness, anchorage and adaptability to different soil types are generally excellent.Many apple trees are pruned and trained to allow a central main stem, or leader, to be the foundation of the tree off of which side branches, or scaffolds grow. The tree ends up with a conical or pyramid form. This is called central leader pruning. This is a simple pruning method, and it makes for a compact, balanced, easily managed tree, with fruit that has maximum access to sunlight and air circulation. (Source: extension.umn.edu)

 

 

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