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There are two other species in the genus (S. lasiandrum and S. sutchuenense), both from China, but neither are readily available or as ornamental as S. diphyllum. The similar Celandine (Chelidonium majus), also in the poppy family, is a somewhat weedy European biennial that has smaller flowers (¾” across or less) that bloom in summer and hairless, erect seed capsules.
The bright yellow flowers of Stylophorum diphyllum, commonly called celandine poppy or wood poppy, make a splash in spring and early summer. This herbaceous perennial in the poppy family (Papaveraceae) is native to moist woodlands of eastern North America, from zone 4 to 9. It is found in low-elevation deciduous forests from Ontario, Canada and Pennsylvania south to Kentucky, north Alabama and Georgia and west to Michigan and Missouri, typically in open woods at the base of bluffs, along streams, and in ravine bottoms with rich soils. It is one of the plants that is adversely affected by invasive garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) and habitat destruction, and is considered threatened or endangered in many areas. This showy, relatively long-lived wildflower adapts easily to the flower garden so it is often grown as an ornamental in beds as well as in naturalistic plantings.
Celandine poppy is well suited to shaded perennials beds, native plant gardens, and for naturalizing in moist woodlands. Use it as a showpiece in a wildflower garden or along a shady path. The bold foliage of celadine poppy is a nice contrast of texture when planted among large-leaved hostas. It combines well with other shade-loving plants including bleeding heart (Dicentra spp.), columbine (Aquilegia spp.), foamflower (Tiarella spp.), spiderworts (Tradescantia spp.) and wild ginger (Asarum spp.). Because it tolerates moist soils, it could be used in a shady rain garden. Place celandine poppy where it will receive sun in the early spring before the trees fully leaf out, but dappled shade later in the year. Even though it does best in moist, humus-rich soil, it is fairly drought tolerant once established and can do well in dry shade without supplemental watering (although it may go dormant under those conditions). (Source: hort.extension.wisc.edu)