FutureStarr

Pallidus

Pallidus

Pallidus

The globus pallidus is a major component of the basal ganglia, with principal inputs from the striatum, and principal direct outputs to the thalamus and the substantia nigra. The latter is made up of similar neuronal elements, has similar afferents from the striatum, similar projections to the thalamus, and has a similar synaptology. Neither receives direct cortical afferents, and both receive substantial additional inputs from the intralaminar thalamus.

Pallidus

via GIPHY

is a subcortical structure of the brain. It consists of two adjacent segments, one external, known in rodents simply as the globus pallidus, and one internal, known in rodents as the entopeduncular nucleus. It is part of the telencephalon, but retains close functional ties with the subthalamus in the diencephalon – both of which are part of the extrapyramidal motor system.in which a lesion is created to reduce involuntary muscle tremors. When it comes to regulation of movement, the globus pallidus has a primarily inhibitory action that balances the excitatory action of the cerebellum. These two systems evolved to work in harmony with each other to allow smooth and controlled movements. Imbalances can result in tremors, jerks, and other movement problems, as seen in some people with progressive neurological disorders characterized by symptoms like tremors. The basal ganglia acts on a subconscious level, requiring no conscious effort to function. When someone makes a decision to engage in an activity such as petting a dog, for example, these structures help to regulate the movement to make it as smooth as possible, and to respond to sensory feedback. Likewise, the globus pallidus is involved in the constant subtle regulation of movement that allows people to walk and engage in a wide variety of other activities with a minimal level of disruption.

Overview of the main circuits of the basal ganglia. Globus pallidus externa and interna are shown in green. Picture shows 2 coronal slices that have been superimposed to include the involved basal ganglia structures, with + and – signs at the point of the arrows indicating, respectively, whether the pathway is excitatory or inhibitory in effect. Green arrows refer to excitatory glutamatergic pathways, red arrows refer to inhibitory GABAergic pathways and turquoise arrows refer to dopaminergic pathways that are excitatory on the direct pathway and inhibitory on the indirect pathway.This area of the basal ganglia receives input from another area, called the striatum, which has two parts, the caudate nucleus and the putamen. This data is routed to the thalamus, either directly or indirectly. In the case of the interna, one area of the globus pallidus, the structure can feed directly to the thalamus. The externa, which lies on the outside of this structure, feeds information to the interna, where it can be passed on to the thalamus. (Source: en.wikipedia.org)

 

Related Articles