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lupin seeds are popular for both birdseed and for use in gardens. They prefer a sunny spot, so plant them in areas that receive no shade.Lupin or lupini beans are the yellow legume seeds of the genus Lupinus. They are traditionally eaten as a pickled snack food, primarily in the Mediterranean basin (L. albus), Latin America (L. mutabilis) and North Africa (L. angustifolius). The most ancient evidence of lupin is from ancient Egypt, dating back to the 22nd century BCE.
The earliest archaeological reports on lupins are referred to the Twelfth Dynasty of Egyptian Pharaohs. In their tombs, seeds of Lupinus digitatus Forsk., already domesticated in those times, were discovered. Seven seeds of this species were also retrieved in the tombs of this dynasty dated back to the 22nd century BCE. They are the most ancient evidence of lupin in the Mediterranean.Some varieties are referred to as "sweet lupins" because they contain much smaller amounts of toxic alkaloids than the "bitter lupin" varieties.
Newly bred variants of the narrow-leafed or 'Australian Sweet Lupin' (L. angustifolius) lupins are grown in Australia, Germany and Poland; they lack any bitter taste and require no soaking in salt solution. The seeds are used for different foods from lupin flake, vegan sausages, lupin-tofu, and lupin flour. Given that lupin seeds have the full range of essential amino acids and that they, contrary to soy, can be grown in more temperate to cool climates, lupins are becoming increasingly recognized as a cash crop alternative to soy.Lupins are currently under widespread cultivation in Australia, Europe, Russia, and the Americas as a green manure, livestock fodder and grazing plant, and high-protein additive for animal and human foods. (Source: en.wikipedia.org)
According to the Australia New Zealand Food Authority (2001), "data indicates that the mean alkaloid content of marketable sweet lupin seed is on average 130–150 mg/kg." Regarding the daily tolerable intake of alkaloids, it writes, "The only data available on human chronic toxicity are the reports of traditional use of lupini beans in Europe, which indicate a daily dose of 0.35 mg/kg can be tolerated in adults without adverse affects. […] Also, the information applies only to adults, not children, and it is likely that the adult population has developed a certain amount of tolerance to these alkaloids. […] If a safety factor of 10 is applied to account for the uncertainties in the data and particularly to take into account likely human variation, the provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI) for humans is 0.035 mg/kg/day or 35 μg/kg/day."
A 2017 opinion by the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment states that "there are no systematic and validated tests for the quality of household kitchen debittering methods", and as a precaution, it recommends that "consumers avoid the consumption of bitter lupin seeds which were not debittered by the manufacturer, as there is no certainty that the recommended debittering procedures result in a sufficient reduction in the levels of health-damaging alkaloids." (Source:wikipedia.org)