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Erythronium Americanum

Erythronium Americanum

Erythronium Americanum

Known as the Yellow Dogtooth Violet, this member of the Lily family is found in:Erythronium americanum, the trout lily, yellow trout lily, or yellow dogtooth violet, is a species of perennial, colony forming, spring ephemeral flower native to North America and dwelling in woodland habitats. Within its range it is a very common and widespread species, especially in eastern North America. Allen, Geraldine A.; Robertson, Kenneth R. (2002). "Erythronium americanum". In Flora of North America Editorial Committee (ed.). Flora of North America North of Mexico (FNA). 26. New York and Oxford. Retrieved 14 June 2016 – via eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.Ruhren, Scott; Dudash, Michele (1996). "Consequences of the Timing of Seed Release of Erythronium americanum (Liliaceae), a Deciduous Forest Myrmecochore" (PDF). American Journal of Botany. 83 (5): 633. doi:10.2307/2445923. JSTOR 2445923.

Erythronium

The other two species of Trout Lily within the state, Erythronium albidum (White Trout Lily) and Erythronium mesochoreum (Prairie Trout Lily), have either white flowers or bluish white flowers. Both the flowers and foliage of Yellow Trout Lily are quite attractive, although the blooming period is rather short and most plants fail to flower during any given year. In Illinois, Yellow Trout Lily is much less common than White Trout Lily. However, in states further to the east, the reverse is true: Yellow Trout Lily is more common than White Trout Lily.This plant is a member of the Lily family (Liliaceae) – a family which also includes Clintonia, Indian Cucumber-root, and Rose Twisted Stalk. The Trout Lily is one of two plants in the Erythronium genus that occur in New York State. The other is Erythronium albidum Nutt (White Trout Lily), which occurs on the periphery of the Adirondack Park, in Oneida and Washington counties.

Adirondack Habitats: Trout Lilies prefer dappled sunlight in soil enriched with leaf litter and decaying organic matter. Look for this plant growing under hardwoods (deciduous trees) in both mixed woods and northern hardwood forests. Trout Lilies (Erythronium americanum) growing in mixed woods on the Big Field Trail at Heaven Hill (13 May 2019).Faunal Associations: The nectar and pollen of the flowers attract largely bees, including bumblebees, Mason bees, and Andrenid bees. One bee species, Andrena erythronii, is a weak oligolege (specialist pollinator) of Erythronium spp. (Trout Lilies). Like several other woodland wildflowers, the seeds of Yellow Trout Lily are distributed in part by ants, which are attracted to their food appendages. Because the leaves of this plant are relatively small and inconspicuous, they are browsed by White-tailed Deer to only a limited extent. The mottled pattern of the leaves helps to disguise them from such mammalian herbivores as they lack color vision. (Source: www.illinoiswildflowers.info)

 

 

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