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Worldwide, more than 53 million tons of fillers (with a total sum of approximately US$18 billion) are used every year in application areas such as paper, plastics, rubber, paints, coatings, adhesives, and sealants. As such, fillers, produced by more than 700 companies, rank among the world's major raw materials and are contained in a variety of goods for daily consumer needs. The top filler materials used are ground calcium carbonate (GCC), precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC), kaolin, talc, and carbon black.
is used in filler masterbatch as a base with large percentage in composition. Calcium carbonate powder accounts for 97% of composition will bring for white/opaque products more whiteness. So manufacturers can reduce the usage of white masterbatch. With smaller percent, calcium carbonate powder can be used for color products. In addition, it brings for final plastic products more bright and glossy surface.Nanofillers can be broken out into three groups nanoplates, nanofibers, and nanoparticles. Nanoparticles are more widely used than nanoplates and nanofibers but nanoplates are starting to become more widely used. Nanoplates are like conventional platy fillers like talc and mica except the thickness is much smaller. Advantages of adding nanofillers include creating a gas barrier and their flame retardant properties.
Filler can have a negative or positive effect on fatigue resistance depending on the filler type and shape. In general fillers create small discontinuities in the matrix. This can contribute to crack initiation point. If the filler is brittle fatigue resistance will be low, whereas if the filler is very ductile the composite will be fatigue resistant. Adhesion is also an important factor influencing fatigue resistance. If stress is higher than the particles adhesion a crack will form/propagate. Fiber ends are areas where cracks initiate most often due to the high stress on fiber ends with lower adhesion. Talc is a filler that can be used to increase fatigue resistance.Soldering and brazing processes rely on a filler metal added to the joint to form the junction between the base metal parts. Soft soldering uses a filler that melts at a lower temperature than the workpiece, often a lead-tin solder alloy. Brazing and hard soldering use a higher temperature filler that melts at a temperature which may approach that of the base metal, and which may form a eutectic alloy with the base metal. (Source: en.wikipedia.org)