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FutureStarrWildflower Seedling Identification OOR
Recent declines in bee populations, along with increasing demand for pollination services in urban, agricultural, and natural environments, have led to strategies to attract wild bees to these areas. One of these strategies is installing artificial nests adjacent to urban gardens and agricultural farms. Bee hotels and nest boxes are among the artificial nests used by gardeners and farmers to attract pollinators. In this paper, we reviewed 50 studies that reported the efficiency of nest boxes and bee hotels in attracting bees. We considered the maximum occupation rate (percentage) as the main index to evaluate the efficiency of artificial nests.
The maximum occupation rate of bee hotels was higher in farms (averaged 44.1%) than in forests (averaged 30.3%) and urban (averaged 38.3%) environments. In the case of nest boxes, most studies reported efficiencies of less than 20%, with an occupation rate of 16% and 5.5% on average in forest and urban environments respectively. However, our meta-analysis results showed that there was no significant relationship between the occupation rate of the nests and their installation place. Regression analysis also showed that the structural features of bee hotels (length and diameter) and nest boxes (volume and entrance size) did not affect their efficiency in attracting bees. Nests are partitioned into cells, with each cell serving as an individual bee's developmental chamber. Females lay an egg in each cell and leave behind a pollen pellet held together with nectar. (In social systems, family members actively feed immature bees). Eggs hatch into grub-like larvae and eat the pollen stores. Larvae undergo metamorphosis as pupae and emerge as winged adults. Ground nesting bees partition their tunnel or dig lateral offshoots to house cells. Offshoots can house one or many cells, with cells arranged linearly or in.
clusters. Bees that nest in narrow cavities or hollow twigs align cells end-to-end. Partitions between cells are sealed with mud, wood-pulp, leafy envelopes or other materials. When mature, adult bees chew their way out of their cells and exit the nest. In these linear nests, females create cells in sequence, starting at the back of the nest and moving towards the front, until the final cell is sealed at the nest entrance.The overwhelming majority of bee species are solitary. In these species, newly emerged adult males and females mate. Females then choose a nest site, construct cells, lay eggs, provide food stores for each egg and seal the cells. Females may build one or many nests in different locations over the course of their lifetimes and mothers usually do not meet their offspring. Depending on the species, solitary bees can have one or many generations per year. The final generation usually completes its development and overwinters in the adult stage inside the nest and waits until conditions are favorable for emergence. (Source: ento.psu.edu)