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Senega

Senega

Senega

The appropriate dose of senega depends on several factors such as the user's age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for senega. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.Overexploitation of the native plant is a concern, and there has been evidence of overharvest in some areas. At its peak in the year 1931, Canada exported about 781,000 pounds of dry senega root, which equals 2 million pounds of fresh plant. More yet was supplied to the domestic market. Today about 100,000 pounds of fresh plant are harvested annually from the wild in Canada. Herbal remedies are becoming popular again, and demand for senega grows an estimated 5% per year. The biggest importers of the Canadian product, as of the mid-90s, were Europe, Japan, and the United States. Ethanolic extract of Polygala senega (EEPS) had little or no cytotoxic effects on normal lung cells, but caused cell death and apoptosis to lung cancer cell line A549. In the present paper, ethanolic root extract of P. senega (EEPS) was nanoencapsulated (size: 147.7 nm) by deploying a biodegradable poly-(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA). The small size of the NEEPS resulted in an enhanced cellular entry and greater bioavailability. The growth of cancer cells was inhibited better by NEEPS than EEPS. Both EEPS and NEEPS induced apoptosis of A549 cells, which was associated with decreased expression of survivin, PCNA mRNA, and increased expression of caspase-3, p53 mRNAs of A549 cells. The results show that the anticancer potential of the formulation of EEPS-loaded PLGA nanoparticles was more effective than EEPS per se, probably due to more aqueous dispersion after nanoencapsulation.

Therefore, nanoencapsulated ethanolic root extract of P. senega may serve as a potential chemopreventive agent against lung cancer. )There are more than 170 000 new cases of lung cancer every year in the United States, which is the leading cause of cancer death both in the United States [1] and throughout the world. Many plant extracts show immunopotentiating and antitumor properties [2, 3]. Ethanolic extract of Polygala senega is used as an expectorant to treat cough, sore throat, bronchitis, and asthma [4, 5] and as an antihypoglycemic agent [6]. The saponins of P. senega are used as vaccine adjuvants to increase specific immune responses [7]. P. senega was tested as anti-inflammatory properties on RAW 264.7 macrophage cell lines [8]. P. senega has poor water solubility that prevents aquatic dispersion making its potential rather restricted because of its lesser bioavailability. Therefore, we have examined if suitable nanoencapsulation of the ethanolic extract could enhance its bioavailability by enhancing its cellular uptake. In the present paper, we have encapsulated ethanolic plant extract of P. senega and then compared the anticancer potentials of both ethanolic extract of P. senega (EEPS) and the nanoencapsulated form (NEEPS) against a lung cancer cell line A549. We have employed the technology used earlier to nanoencapsulate a homeopathic mother tincture of Gelsemium sempervirens [9]:The above results reveal that the NEEPS showed considerable inhibitory activity on cellular growth, more by apoptosis than by necrosis in the A549 cells; but interestingly, EEPS and NEEPS did not have much cytotoxicity when administered to normal lung cells in culture. Thus, both appeared to have an affinity of targeting the cancer cells and to kill them, while leaving the normal cells less affected. The principal active constituents of P. senega are saponin glycosides polygalic acid and senegin, which make up 5% and 4%, respectively, of the dried root [22]. Earlier studies have revealed P. senega to be immunostimulating but not tumoricidal [23, 24]. The findings of the present paper would suggest that they also have considerable anticancer potentials against lung cancer cells.In conclusion, it has been demonstrated that homeopathic mother tincture of P. senega has an anticancer effect against lung cancer cells in vitro, and PLGA encapsulation helps it to enhance its cellular uptake and anticancer potentials, presumably by increasing drug bioavailability. This should stimulate further research on nano-encapsulation of homeopathic mother tinctures, as also medicinal herbal extracts, particularly with suspected anticancer potentials, to examine whether this would prove to be a novel approach for accelerating anticancer potentials for other cases as well. (Source: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov)

 

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