FutureStarr

Seconds to Minutes:

## Seconds to Minutes

An intriguing article about how our minds are wired to use shortcuts to make sense of the world, with the author looking for a slice of the pie she's not getting. Despite misidentifying the guy with the dishes by a different name than the man who ate them, her inner voice tells her the article is correct.

### Example

Fractions of a second are usually denoted in decimal notation, for example 2.01 seconds, or two and one hundredth seconds. Multiples of seconds are usually expressed as minutes and seconds, or hours, minutes and seconds of clock time, separated by colons, such as 11:23:24, or 45:23 (the latter notation can give rise to ambiguity, because the same notation is used to denote hours and minutes). It rarely makes sense to express longer periods of time like hours or days in seconds, because they are awkwardly large numbers. For the metric unit of second, there are decimal prefixes representing 10.Use this calculator to add or subtract two or more time values in the form of an expression. An acceptable input has d, h, m, and s following each value, where d means days, h means hours, m means minutes, and s means seconds. The only acceptable operators are + and -. "1d 2h 3m 4s + 4h 5s - 2030s" is an example of a valid expression.One of the prominent arguments that arose from the correspondence between Newton's spokesman Samuel Clarke and Leibniz is referred to as the bucket argument, or Newton's bucket. In this argument, water in a bucket hanging stationary from a rope begins with a flat surface, which becomes concave as the water and bucket are made to spin. If the bucket's rotation is then stopped, the water remains concave during the period it continues to spin. Since this example showed that the concavity of the water was not based on an interaction between the bucket and the water, Newton claimed that the water was rotating in relation to a third entity, absolute space. He argued that absolute space was necessary in order to account for cases where a relationalist perspective could not fully explain an object's rotation and acceleration. Despite Leibniz's efforts, this Newtonian concept of physics remained prevalent for nearly two centuries.

While many scientists, including Ernst Mach, Albert A. Michelson, Hendrik Lorentz, and Henri Poincare among others, contributed to what would ultimately transform theoretical physics and astronomy, the scientist credited with compiling and describing the theory of relativity and the Lorenz Transformation was Albert Einstein. Unlike Newton, who believed that time moved identically for all observers regardless of the frame of reference, Einstein, building on Leibniz's view that time is relative, introduced the idea of spacetime as connected, rather than separate concepts of space and time. Einstein posited that the speed of light, c, in vacuum, is the same for all observers, independent of the motion of the light source, and relates distances measured in space with distances measured in time. Essentially, for observers within different inertial frames of reference (different relative velocities), both the shape of space as well as the measurement of time simultaneously change due to the invariance of the speed of light – a view vastly different from Newton's. A common example depicting this involves a spaceship moving near the speed of light. To an observer on another spaceship moving at a different speed, time would move slower on the spaceship traveling at near the speed of light, and would theoretically stop if the spaceship could actually reach the speed of light.There are two distinct forms of measurement typically used today to determine time: the calendar and the clock. These measurements of time are based on the sexagesimal numeral system, which uses 60 as its base. This system originated from ancient Sumer within the 3rd millennium BC, and was adopted by the Babylonians. It is now used in a modified form for measuring time, as well as angles and geographic coordinates. Base 60 is used due to the number 60's status as a superior highly composite number having 12 factors. A superior highly composite number is a natural number, that relative to any other number scaled to some power of itself, has more divisors. The number 60, having as many factors as it does, simplifies many fractions involving sexagesimal numbers, and its mathematical advantage is one of the contributing factors to its continued use today. For example, 1 hour, or 60 minutes, can be evenly divided into 30, 20, 15, 12, 10, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, and 1 minute, illustrating some of the reasoning behind the sexagesimal system's use in measuring time. (Source: www.calculator.net)

#### Time

Is the base unit of time in the International System of Units (SI) (French: Système International d’unités), commonly understood and historically defined as 1⁄86400 of a day – this factor derived from the division of the day first into 24 hours, then to 60 minutes and finally to 60 seconds each. Analog clocks and watches often have sixty tick marks on their faces, representing seconds (and minutes), and a "second hand" to mark the passage of time in seconds. Digital clocks and watches often have a two-digit seconds counter. The second is also part of several other units of measurement like meters per second for speed, meters per second per second for acceleration, and cycles per second for frequency. Multiples of seconds are usually counted in hours and minutes. Fractions of a second are usually counted in tenths or hundredths. In scientific work, small fractions of a second are counted in milliseconds (thousandths), microseconds (millionths), nanoseconds (billionths), and sometimes smaller units of a second. An everyday experience with small fractions of a second is a 1-gigahertz microprocessor which has a cycle time of 1 nanosecond. Camera shutter speeds are often expressed in fractions of a second, such as.A mechanical clock, one which does not depend on measuring the relative rotational position of the Earth, keeps uniform time called mean time, within whatever accuracy is intrinsic to it. That means that every second, minute and every other division of time counted by the clock will be the same duration as any other identical division of time. But a sundial which measures the relative position of the sun in the sky called apparent time, does not keep uniform time. The time kept by a sundial varies by time of year, meaning that seconds, minutes and every other division of time is a different duration at different times of the year. The time of day measured with mean time versus apparent time may differ by as much as 15 minutes, but a single day will differ from the next by only a small amount; 15 minutes is a cumulative difference over a part of the year. The effect is due chiefly to the obliqueness of Earth's axis with respect to its orbit around the sun.

Fractions of a second are usually denoted in decimal notation, for example 2.01 seconds, or two and one hundredth seconds. Multiples of seconds are usually expressed as minutes and seconds, or hours, minutes and seconds of clock time, separated by colons, such as 11:23:24, or 45:23 (the latter notation can give rise to ambiguity, because the same notation is used to denote hours and minutes). It rarely makes sense to express longer periods of time like hours or days in seconds, because they are awkwardly large numbers. For the metric unit of second, there are decimal prefixes representing 10. speed (meters per second) and acceleration (meters per second squared). The metric system unit becquerel, a measure of radioactive decay, is measured in inverse seconds. The meter is defined in terms of the speed of light and the second; definitions of the metric base units kilogram, ampere, kelvin, and candela also depend on the second. The only base unit whose definition does not depend on the second is the mole. Of the 22 named derived units of the SI, only two (radian and steradian), do not depend on the second. Many derivative units for everyday things are reported in terms of larger units of time, not seconds, such as clock time in hours and minutes, velocity of a car in kilometers per hour or miles per hour, kilowatt hours of electricity usage, and speed of a turntable in rotations per minute.There exist various concepts of time that have been postulated by different philosophers and scientists over an extensive period of human history. One of the earlier views was presented by the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle (384-322 BC), who defined time as "a number of movement in respect of the before and after." Essentially, Aristotle's view of time defined it as a measurement of change requiring the existence of some kind of motion or change. He also believed that time was infinite and continuous, and that the universe always did, and always will exist. Interestingly, he was also one of, if not the first person to frame the idea that time existing of two different kinds of non-existence, makes time existing at all, questionable. Aristotle's view is solely one amongst many in the discussion of time, the most controversial of which began with Sir Isaac Newton, and Gottfried Leibniz. (Source: www.calculator.net)

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