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Whatever type of content you are creating, the best thing to do before you start writing is to conduct an interview with the person you are writing about (either yourself or someone else).

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Results: The prevalence of SIRS is very high, affecting one-third of all in-hospital patients, and >50% of all ICU patients; in surgical ICU patients, SIRS occurs in >80% patients. Trauma patients are at particularly high risk of SIRS, and most these patients do not have infection documented. The prevalence of infection and bacteraemia increases with the number of SIRS criteria met, and with increasing severity of the septic syndromes. About one-third of patients with SIRS have or evolve to sepsis. Sepsis may occur in approximately 25% of ICU patients, and bacteraemic sepsis in 10%. In such patients, sepsis evolves to severe sepsis in >50% of cases, whereas evolution to severe sepsis in non-ICU patients is about 25%. Severe sepsis and septic shock occur in 2%-3% of ward patients and 10%-15% or more ICU patients, depending on the case-mix; 25% of patients with severe sepsis have shock. There is a graded severity from SIRS to sepsis, severe sepsis and septic shock, with an associated 28-d mortality of approximately 10%, 20%, 20%-40%, and 40%-60%, respectively. Mortality rates are similar within each stage, whether infection is documented or not, and microbiological characteristics of infection do not substantially influence outcome, although the source of infection does. While about three of four deaths occur during the first months after sepsis, the septic syndromes significantly impact on long-term outcome, with an estimated 50% reduction of life expectancy over the following five years. The major determinants of outcome, both short-term and long-term, of patients with sepsis are the severity of underlying diseases and comorbidities, the presence of shock and organ failures at onset of sepsis or evolving thereafter. It has been estimated that two-thirds of the overall mortality can be attributed to sepsis.

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This article reviews clinical pharmacokinetic data on the H1-receptor antagonists, commonly referred to as the antihistamines. Despite their widespread use over an extended period, relatively little pharmacokinetic data are available for many of these drugs. A number of H1-receptor antagonists have been assayed mainly using radioimmunoassay methods. These have also generally measured metabolites to greater or lesser extents. Thus, the interpretation of such data is complex. After oral administration of H1-receptor antagonists as syrup or tablet formulations, peak plasma concentrations are usually observed after 2 to 3 hours. Bioavailability has not been extensively studied, but is about 0.34 for chlorpheniramine, 0.40 to 0.60 for diphenhydramine, and about 0.25 for promethazine. Most of these drugs are metabolised in the liver, this being very extensive in some instances (e.g. cyproheptadine and terfenadine). Total body clearance in adults is generally in the range of 5 to 12 ml/min/kg (for astemizole, brompheniramine, chlorpheniramine, diphenhydramine, hydroxyzine, promethazine and triprolidine), while their elimination half-lives range from about 3 hours to about 18 days [cinnarizine about 3 hours; diphenhydramine about 4 hours; promethazine 10 to 14 hours; chlorpheniramine 14 to 25 hours; hydroxyzine about 20 hours; brompheniramine about 25 hours; astemizole and its active metabolites about 7 to 20 days (after long term administration); flunarizine about 18 to 20 days]. They also have relatively large apparent volumes of distribution in excess of 4 L/kg. In children, the elimination half-lives of chlorpheniramine and hydroxyzine are shorter than in adults. In patients with alcohol-related liver disease, the elimination half-life of diphenhydramine was increased from 9 to 15 hours, while in patients with chronic renal disease that of chlorpheniramine was very greatly prolonged. Little, if any, published information is available on the pharmacokinetics of these drugs in neonates, pregnancy or during lactation. The relatively long half-lives of a number of the older H1-receptor antagonists such as brompheniramine, chlorpheniramine and hydroxyzine suggest that they can be administered to adults once daily.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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