Passiflora Vine"

Passiflora Vine"

Passiflora Vine

Fryer, Janet L. 2008. Sambucus racemosa. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). Available:https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/samrac/all.html [].



Red Elderberry is cultivated primarily for its attractive red berries. These berries are slightly toxic to humans, but after cooking they can be used to make jelly or wine. The eastern North American variety of this shrub has been referred to as Sambucus racemosa pubens (also Sambucus pubens); it differs from the typical European variety by its pubescent stems, leaves, and pedicels. Other authorities refer to eastern North American shrubs of this species as Sambucus racemosa racemosa. There is also a western North American variety with black berries. The only other species of this genus in Illinois, Sambucus canadensis (Common Elderberry), is more common and distributed throughout the state. Unlike Red Elderberry in eastern North America, Common Elderberry produces black berries and its panicles of white flowers are wide and flat-headed. An unrelated species, Aralia racemosa (Spikenard), superficially resembles Red Elderberry, but it has small umbellets of 5 or more flowers within each panicle, its berries are dark purple, and it is non-woody.

Most of our understory shrubs and small trees have simple (entire) petiolate leaves. Red elderberry has pinnately compound leaves: leaflets arranged along an elongate axial stem. Pinnate comes from the Latin pinnāt(us), “feathered” or “winged.” The two elderberry species native to Maine, Sambucus racemosa and S. nigra (common or black elderberry) seem unlike the ten or so species of viburnums which comprise the remainder of the small New England Adoxaceae family, although both genuses possess creamy white clusters of flowers of some resemblance. Sambucus racemosa subsp. racemosa - European red elder. Sambucus racemosa var. racemosa - Pacific red elderberry. Sambucus racemosa subsp. sibirica - red elder, native to Siberia. Sambucus racemosa subsp. sieboldiana - Japanese red elder (Source: calscape.org)



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