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It is now known that this genus is paraphyletic, and that the vittarioid ferns are derived from this larger paraphyletic genus. However, if Adiantum raddianum, and possibly a few other species, are removed, the remaining plants (genus type: Adiantum capillus-veneris) are then monophyletic.
Many species are grown in the horticultural trade. There are a number of tropical species, including A. raddianum and A. peruvianum. Both A. pedatum and A. aleuticum are hardy to zone 3, and are by far the most cold-hardy members of the genus. A. venustum is also cold-hardy to zone 5. A. capillus-veneris is hardy to zone 7. Hybrids, such as Adiantum × mairisii, are also popular. Adiantum is a very clearly circumscribed genus of ferns, the character state "sporangia borne on abaxial surface of false indusium" being both necessary and sufficient to define it. Within this large and widespread genus, however, species relationships are mostly unknown. An evolutionary classification of the group is indeed much needed (R. M. Tryon and A. F. Tryon 1982).
A. raddianum is a delicate fern native to tropical and subtropical South America. The fern grows terrestrially or on rocks and erects arching fronds, up to 50 cm high, growing out of a short rhizome. The plant has become naturalized in various tropical and subtropical islands and is considered to be invasive in Hawaii and French Polynesia. The fern readily spreads and becomes locally abundant. In Hawaii it was first observed around 1910 and is now the most common Adiantum species. It grows best in moist and shady places and appears to replace the closely related native Adiantum capillus-veneris. It also threatens an endemic species of silversword, Dubautia plantaginea subsp. humilis, and another native fern, Pteris lidgatei. Scientific databases and publications including Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, Science direct, Cochrane Library, SID (for Persian papers) and medical and pharmaceutical textbooks of traditional medicine as well were searched for “Adiantum capillus-veneris”, “Maidenhair fern” and “Pare-siavashan” without limitation up to 2016. (Source: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov)