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FutureStarrCoral Berry Plant
Coralberry occurred in forest type where climate was continental. Mean annual temperature 15ï¿½C; ranged from average daily min. of −4.3ï¿½C to an average daily max. of 34ï¿½C. Average annual precip. was 831 mm (Horncastle et al. 2004). Does well with other shade tolerant plants. Can take dry shade or irrigated (Williamson County Native Plant Society 2007). Thin rocky woodlands, woodland openings, woodland borders, powerline clearances in wooded areas, thickets, and limestone glades (Hilty 2009). Medium tolerance to drought and restricted water conditions (Gardenguides 1997−2010). Prefers sandy, loamy and clay soils; can grow in heavy clay and nutritionally poor soils; prefers acid, neutral and alkaline soils. It can grow in full shade (deep woodland) semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires dry or moist soil. The plant can tolerate maritime exposure and atmospheric pollution. Does well in sun or shade. A very hardy plant, tolerating temperatures down to about -40ï¿½C. Does not fruit freely in Britain, except after a hot summer (Plants Future 1996−2008). The dominant species of this palustrine scrub-shrub wetland include the herbaceous species Symphoricarpos orbiculatus (Futuregen 2007). Found at an altitude of 0 to 1,473 meters (0 to 4,833 feet) (ZipcodeZoo 2004−2009)A. crenata can reproduce sexually and asexually by seed, as well as from vegetative cuttings. It is a self-compatible species, but long-distance pollen dispersal is also important for the reproduction of the species as long-distance seed dispersal is inefficient for genetic mixing (Zeng et al., 2012). Sexual maturity is reached when plants are approximately 20 cm in height and start developing lateral branches. Each lateral branch has a lifespan of two years: as a vegetative branch in its first year, and bearing flowers and fruits terminally in the second year (Kitajima et al., 2006). Bees and flies pollinate A. crenata but there are no specific pollinators outside of its native range (USDA-APHIS, 2012).
Artificial selection of A. crenata for attractive traits through cultivation for ornamental purposes has resulted in slower growth rates of cultivars, resulting in a greater ability to shade native plants, increased seed production through selection for attractive berry production, and greater ability to re-sprout, compared to wild ecotypes in its native range (Kitajima et al., 2006).century as an ornamental, and was noted as escaping into moist woodland in 1982. It has been reported in Florida natural areas in Alachua, Flagler, Gadsden, Highlands, Hillsborough, Leon, Liberty, Marion, Martin, and Orange counties (Langeland and Burks, 1998). It has spread from Florida into other southern states, including to Texas in 1997 (Niu et al., 2012). It was first recorded in Hawai’i in 1930, brought in as an ornamental species. It is now present on four of the Hawaiian islands (PIER, 2013), and is listed as an important alien invasive plant species in Hawai’i Volcanoes National Park. Here, it is invasive in the lowlands, but is localised and controlled (Stone et al., 1992). There is high risk of spread once A. crenata is present, and in the USA, it is thought that 11% of the country is suitable for its establishment (USDA-APHIS, 2012).It has been widely introduced, and in some countries it is invasive. In the USA it is listed as weedy or invasive in Florida and Hawai’i by the USDA (USDA-NRCS, 2013), and considered to be invasive by the Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council (Sellers et al., 2013) as well as being on the Florida noxious weed list (Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants, 2013), with planting prohibited in Miami-Dade County, Florida (PIER, 2013). It is also listed as a Category 2 exotic plant that is a moderate problem in Georgia (Georgia Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2013), and is on ‘Watch List A: recently appearing in Alabama as free-living infestations’ (Alabama Invasive Plant Council, 2007). A risk assessment for A. crenata in Hawai’i produced a score of 10, which is a high risk value for invasive species (PIER, 2013). (Source: www.cabi.org)