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A Life Cycle of Tobacco

A Life Cycle of Tobacco

Life Cycle of Tobacco

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Biological control. The microbial insecticide Bacillus thuringiensis is effective against budworm. Heliothis nuclear polyhedrosis virus has been used effectively to suppress tobacco budworm on field crops and on early season weed hosts. Tobacco budworm also is susceptible to nuclear polyhedrosis virus from alfalfa looper, Autographa californica (Speyer). Release of Trichogramma egg parasitoids has been shown to be beneficial in some vegetable crops (Martin et al. 1976). TCEC's Evaluation Life Cycle organizes the evaluation process by three broad categories: Planning, Data Collection, and Reporting & Analysis. Informing each step of an evaluation is its Utility and Audience: What is it being used for, and who is it affecting? Click the links under each heading to find more resources and information on each phase of the Evaluation Life Cycle. Thank you for visiting nature.com. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

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fixation rate is observed, which results in less water consumption and more biomass production per water used. Transgenic lines export sugars to the phloem at higher rate than WT, which leads to higher sugars levels in phloem exudates and veins. Leaf quantitative proteomic profiling revealed drastic differences in proteins related to cell cycle, flowering, hormone signaling and carbon metabolism between transgenic lines and WT. We propose that the increased sugar export from leaves in the transgenic lines alleviates sugar negative feedback on photosynthesis and thus, stomatal closure takes place without a penalty in CO To obtain clues about putative altered pathways operating in the transgenic plants in relation to the modified phenotypic traits observed, a quantitative comparative proteomic analysis was conducted using the WT and the three transgenic lines (M1, M3 and M4). In total, 772 proteins were identified in the protein samples (Supplementary Table S1), from which 26 proteins were differently expressed when comparing the three transgenic lines versus WT (Table 3). From these differentially expressed proteins, 21 were increased and 5 decreased in ME1, ME3 and ME4 in comparison to the WT (Table 3).

In summary, we developed an approach to avoid plant water loss by expressing a maize NADP-ME isoform in tobacco guard cells and vascular tissue. The mechanism behind this effect is a more pronounced stomatal closure in the transgenic plants than in the WT. Due to an increased rate of sugar export to phloem this mechanism is associated with enhanced carbon fixation. Minimization of water loss by stomatal closure without a penalty in carbon assimilation rate is a great challenge in crop improvement. The strategy presented in this work also accelerates plant reproductive development, which is also a favorable trait for crops cultivated primarily for the use of their seeds. Leaves of 7-week-old N. tabacum plants were bleached with 96% (v/v) ethanol during 10 min at 100 °C and with 5% (w/v) NaOH in 50% (v/v) ethanol during 5 min at 100 °C. This treatment ensures that the cells are fixed and allows stomatal pore size measurements. After extensive washes with abundant water, the samples were incubated in a 50% (w/v) NaClO solution until discoloration and washed. The tissue was stained with saturated Safranin O and mounted with 0.15% (w/v) gelatin in 50% (v/v) glycerin. Guard cells were observed with a LabPhot-2 Nikon microscope. Pore sizes were measured in more than 100 stomata using at least six independent preparations. (Source: www.nature.com)

 

 

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