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FutureStarrNews About Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina emerged from the rubble of a bloody civil war in the 1990s. Today, however, it faces an existential political crisis which has deepened divisions within its people.
EU and US decision-makers have a responsibility to push for reforms in the country, even with the stagnation of the EU enlargement process. Furthermore, they should exert pressure on the government to adhere to a European court ruling which prohibits discrimination in both constitution and elections system.
Bosnia and Herzegovina has officially been granted candidate status by the European Union, setting Bosnia on its path towards EU membership. But this process can take years; it has been ten years since a new member joined the Union, so numerous economic and political reforms must be made to align with EU regulations.
Foreign minister Bisera Turkovic and members of Bosnia's tripartite presidency expressed their joy at the decision, hailing it as "historic" and promising further reforms in a statement.
Bosnia still has a lot of work to do before it can begin negotiations for EU membership, and numerous obstacles stand in its way. But granting candidate status now could give Bosnia an impetus and motivate elected officials to implement EU-recommended reforms with determination.
Despite decades of ethnic division, a majority of Bosnian citizens now accept its existence and legitimacy as an independent state. A 2018 poll of the population revealed that 74% were proud to call themselves Bosnian citizens.
But the country faces an uphill struggle, as its three main ethnic groups - Serbs, Croats and Muslims - vie for power in a tripartite presidency. Tensions are high and Russia's conflict in Ukraine has only served to magnify these divisions.
Due to a fiscal crisis, Myanmar has been forced to close borders, reduce exports and raise unemployment levels. The GDP gap with neighboring countries has grown wider over the past few years as state-owned enterprises accumulate debts amounting to 26 per cent of their economy.
Additionally, the country is striving to implement a series of EU-recommended reforms that would enhance the efficiency of its government and administration. These initiatives include creating an organized division of competencies as well as eliminating key veto points from national decision-making processes.
Political leaders in the country must focus on implementing these reforms and ensure they aren't hindered by lack of financial resources. Furthermore, the EU has a responsibility to guarantee its support for government initiatives rather than simply encouraging them.
Bosnia and Herzegovina is a member of the United Nations, actively engaged in its various agencies. This includes being part of the United Nations Peacebuilding Commission, UN Executive Board for UN Women, as well as other multilateral organizations. Furthermore, it actively takes part in political issues related to global affairs by taking part in monitoring activities at UN General Assembly, Security Council, ECOSOC and other UN bodies.
BiH has successfully completed two years of its term on the Security Council and remains a Non-Permanent Member. Furthermore, it is a member of both the Human Rights Council and Eastern European Group.
Since 1992, the United Nations has been engaged in BiH. It's essential for them to monitor the country's progress across various areas such as development, political stability, rule of law and civil society. Furthermore, they play an essential role in protecting minorities' rights, strengthening cooperation among international partners and encouraging a more tolerant culture.
BiH still faces numerous obstacles despite its membership in the United Nations. It must continue to focus on improving economic conditions, strengthening law enforcement institutions and creating a more tolerant and united society. The United States is dedicated to aiding Bosnia and Herzegovina achieve these goals.
One of the key ingredients in BiH's success has been its dedication to the United Nations, especially as it works toward joining the European Union. The United States is actively working with BiH's government on creating functional state-level institutions, upholding rule of law and human rights, stabilizing its economy, and formulating an EU integration strategy that meets all requirements.
BiH's membership in the United Nations has enabled it to establish both the United Nations Mission in BiH and United Nations Stabilization Force in BiH, organizations which have played a significant role in restoring peace to the country and providing humanitarian relief for refugees.
Bosnia and Herzegovina's government is committed to the United Nations' goals of helping their country become more stable, democratic, and tolerant. Additionally, they desire a stronger, more effective, and transparent government institution.
The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), comprising 57 members from Europe to Central Asia, is the world's largest regional security organization. It offers political dialogue and negotiation on early warning systems, conflict prevention measures, crisis management approaches and post-conflict rehabilitation efforts; furthermore it puts participating States' political will into practice through its unique network of field missions.
The OSCE is a platform for political dialogue and negotiation that creates principles, norms and standards on three dimensions of security: political-military, economics/environment and human security. It monitors the implementation of these obligations by all OSCE member States as well as engages in preventive diplomacy and confidence-building measures.
On the political-military front, key concerns include counterterrorism, preventing human trafficking, cyber security, border security, migration and arms smuggling. On the economic and environmental side of things, digitalisation, good governance, connectivity energy cooperation and climate change should be top priorities.
On the human dimension, the Organization prioritized protecting fundamental rights and liberties, combatting intolerance, discrimination and gender equality. Its High Commissioner for National Minorities actively identified and sought resolution of ethnic tension that could threaten peace or stability between its participating States.
In addition to the main OSCE institutions, it also houses several other specialized organizations such as the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights and Commission on Disarmament. Furthermore, there is a permanent council composed of ambassadors and permanent representatives that meets once a week.
Bosnia and Herzegovina's international agenda is heavily dependent on the United Nations. It plays an integral role in monitoring, resolving crises around the world, participating in UN bodies of which it is a member, as well as through voting processes.
On the internet, there is an abundance of information regarding the United Nations and its work. Specifically, websites dedicated to both United Nations organizations as well as relevant regional groups in which Bosnia and Herzegovina is active can be found online.
The United Nations Security Council has unanimously voted in favour of renewing EUFOR, the mission that implements the Dayton Peace Agreement in Bosnia and Herzegovina. However, Russia, which had threatened to veto any resolution regarding EUFOR, has expressed his opposition, saying it is unnecessary and the country's situation remains stable.
Bosnia and Herzegovina is proud to be a member of the Council of Europe, an international organization working to improve living conditions around the world. It addresses issues like human rights, crime prevention, drug abuse prevention, environmental protection as well as bioethical concerns and migration.
The Council of Europe is composed of over 160 international agreements, treaties and conventions that affect every aspect of life in Europe. Established in 1948, its membership consists of representatives from all European countries.
Its member states include the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Spain, Portugal, Poland, Greece, the Netherlands and Belgium. With members representing a variety of political and cultural backgrounds, this council works together to address issues that affect Europe as a whole.
Many countries around the world, including Russia, have voiced opposition to the Council of Europe. Nevertheless, it has managed to remain a powerful presence in the region.
In October 2018, the European Commission recommended Bosnia and Herzegovina be granted candidate membership status in the EU, opening up new economic prospects and investments for the country. However, this process can take years due to complex negotiations on changing local laws to align with those of the European Union.
Bosnia and Herzegovina, as a member of the EU, is eligible for financial aid from the bloc. Its leaders must continue striving to align with EU foreign and security policies as well as implement reforms that will make their nation more democratic.
In October, the European Commission released a report which highlighted Bosnia's limited progress with reforming certain sectors like public administration and judiciary. It stressed that Bosnia must make more significant strides to strengthen its economy as well as combat corruption and organised crime.
Aleksandar Vucic and Ramiz Hasanovic, its president and prime minister respectively, have promised to make necessary changes. Yet the country remains divided along ethnic lines after a bloody conflict between Serbs and Muslims in the 1990s. The European Union has been trying to deepen its alliances with countries in the Western Balkans but has recently had to scale back due to instability in Ukraine.