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FutureStarrHow Far From New York Was the Titanic When it Sank?
On April 15, 1912, the RMS Titanic went down in the early morning hours of her maiden voyage from Southampton, England, to New York City. Tragically, more than 1,500 people perished in this one of history's deadliest maritime tragedies.
On Sunday, April 14th Titanic was sailing at 22 knots (28 km/h) when two lookouts, Frederick Fleet and Reginald Lee, spotted an iceberg in the distance and alerted the captain.
On April 10th 1912, Titanic set sail from Southampton for New York, expected to take six days. En route she made two calls: Cherbourg in France and Queenstown (now Cobh) in Ireland before continuing west towards Manhattan.
At 11:40pm on April 14, 2001, Titanic struck an iceberg 375 miles south of Newfoundland and crashed into it within two hours and 40 minutes - bringing her to a sudden end.
Though it is impossible to know exactly how far the Titanic drifted during the night, some speculate that she may have gone as far south as 3 miles SSE before sinking. Unfortunately, accurate calculations of her exact route would be impossible due to numerous factors that would have altered her course.
One factor that could have made the journey difficult was a coal strike in Britain at that time, as Titanic needed plenty of fuel for her engines. To obtain it, they had to borrow coal from other ships which meant not enough fuel was available - possibly why she sank so quickly after hitting an iceberg.
Another potential contributing factor to the Titanic disaster was that its crew wasn't trained for looking out for icebergs. Frederick Fleet and Reginald Lee, two lookouts on board, failed to detect the iceberg until after it had already struck the ship.
Their binoculars were kept locked away, and they had only been taught how to see objects with their naked eyes. So while they may have been able to spot the iceberg, it would have been too late by then for them to do anything about it.
On board the Titanic, lookouts had to keep their eyes peeled for any signs of an iceberg. Unfortunately, due to a calm ocean and freezing temperatures that night, icebergs could be difficult to spot; even when they did manage to spot one, its base was barely discernable due to lack of breaking water at its base.
On April 14, 1912, the Titanic was on her maiden voyage from Southampton, England, to New York City when she collided with an iceberg. This collision proved disastrous for passengers and crew of the ship as it flooded many of its watertight compartments and ultimately led to its sinking.
As the ship began to sink, its bow remained above water while its stern submerged beneath it. As this section rose from beneath the waves, stresses placed on its hull caused it to crack and split in two, creating one of history's worst shipwrecks.
Titanic's bow section submerged to the ocean floor within five minutes, while its stern took another six. Estimates place their speed at 56 km/h (35 mph) when they struck bottom of the Atlantic.
It is believed that the stern broke away from the ship in an abrupt and violent way due to its immense weight - caused by propeller-driven water-skimmers. Though initially able to withstand this immense force, eventually breaking apart due to weak spots.
This section of Titanic suffered more damage than its bow section due to being smashed by an iceberg and becoming deformed and damaged. As a result, this section sank to an ocean depth of 12,500 feet beneath sea level.
Even though Titanic took more than 2 hours and 40 minutes to sink, thousands of lives were saved. Lifeboats were lowered onto the surface of the water and filled with people, including women and children first.
At about 2:00 am, Titanic's wireless operator Jack Phillips issued a distress call for rescue. The Cunard liner Carpathia responded, though it was some 58 miles (107 km) away from the Titanic and would not be able to reach it until around 2:30 am.
Though the Titanic went down quickly, locating its wreckage wasn't always an easy feat. At that time, technology for locating shipwrecks wasn't nearly as advanced as it is now; thus it took an estimated 73 years before Robert Ballard finally discovered what lay beneath.
On board Titanic, an estimated 2,224 passengers and crew members perished when it submerged. Only 705 people survived - making this one of history's most tragic peacetime maritime tragedies.
On April 15, 1912, at 2:20 AM, The Titanic began to fill with water and its bow began sinking rapidly - sending hundreds of passengers and crew into the sea. Within hours, both ends began sinking as well; eventually all were lost within twenty minutes - including almost all passengers and crew aboard.
Many survivors were able to jump off the ship into lifeboats, but some never made it out. Some were saved by Carpathia, which sailed to New York shortly after sinking.
Titanic passengers were still missing, and if any had survived, we wouldn't know about their fate until years after the fact. These passengers mostly belonged to first and second classes - although some were third class due to ticket prices being so expensive.
Some passengers were reported to be running late to the pier and some even missed their trip altogether - this group includes notable names like J.P Morgan who cancelled due to illness.
On board the Titanic, there were 109 children (aged under 14) when it sank. Tragically, approximately half of these youngsters perished during the disaster - 53 from third class alone.
Women and children were the most likely to survive the Titanic, boasting a survival rate of 70 percent. This rate was more than double the rate experienced by men on board who only managed a survival rate of 19 percent.
It is worth noting that the majority of passengers who survived were from first and second classes, while staff and crew had the lowest survival rates. This could be attributed to having to perform dangerous jobs while waiting for a lifeboat to launch, often meaning they had to spend more time in cold waters than other passengers did.
One week after Titanic set sail from Southampton, England on her maiden voyage to New York City, she perished in the early hours of 15 April 1912. The tragic sinking, which claimed around 1,500 lives, shocked and saddened people around the globe.
The Titanic had been built to withstand an iceberg, yet her lookouts detected one as she cruised at about 22 knots. It soon became clear that the liner would not make it to New York. Jack Phillips and Harold Bride, the Titanic's wireless operators, sent distress signals to nearby ships but most were too far away for them to reach them.
As the Titanic neared an iceberg, its crew became fearful and ordered passengers into lifeboats. Unfortunately, since these vessels could only carry about half of all passengers and crew aboard, many people were unable to escape.
Eventually, the vessel began to break up, with water seeping over top of bulkheads in four of sixteen compartments and spilling through anchor-chain holes. As an iceberg continued to erode away at its hull, tilting it 45 degrees or more, pieces of its upper structure steel began falling into the sea.
At the same time, the bow began to submerge. As water filled the stern, it cracked the hull and split the vessel in two.
Some of the ship's passengers were saved by other boats, while others died or were buried in the ocean. Around 330 bodies were recovered and interred in three cemeteries in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada - 150 of whom were interred there too.
After Titanic sank, people around the world rallied to raise money for victims. This included creating the Titanic Relief Fund with the purpose of providing assistance for orphans, widows and dependants of those who perished on board.
But there were also unanswered questions regarding what caused the Titanic's sinking, a mystery which still persists today. Scientists, historians and naval architects have spent years trying to solve this mystery; however, recent discoveries have further complicated matters.