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What Is on a Calculator

## What Is on a Calculator

The calculator on my smart phone is a little more powerful than that cheap plastic one at the grocery store. Sure, it can add and subtract integers. But the power of a calculator doesn’t end there! A calculator with its online connection can help you set up your budget, buy a new car, calculate Medicare taxes, answer a calculus problem, and so much more.

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You know, according to the order of operations, the 5 and the 4 should be multiplied by each other before adding the 3. Your calculator may or may not know this. If you press 3 + 5 x 4, some calculators will give you the answer 32 and others will give you 23 (which is correct). Find out what your calculator does. If you see an issue with the order of operations, you can either enter 5 x 4 + 3 (to get the multiplication out of the way) or use parentheses 3 + (5 x 4). Trig Functions: When you're working with angles, keep in mind many calculators let you select whether to express the answer in degrees or radians. Then, you need to determine whether you enter the angle (check the units) and then sin, cos, tan, etc., or whether you press the sin, cos, etc., button and then enter the number. How do you test this: Remember the sine of a 30-degree angle is 0.5. Enter 30 and then SIN and see if you get 0.5. No? Try SIN and then 30. If you get 0.5 using one of these methods, then you know which works. However, if you get -0.988 then your calculator is set to radian mode. To change to degrees, look for a MODE key. There is often an indicator of units written right up with the numerals to let you know what you're getting. (Source: www.thoughtco.com)

### Power

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The electronic calculators of the mid-1960s were large and heavy desktop machines due to their use of hundreds of transistors on several circuit boards with a large power consumption that required an AC power supply. There were great efforts to put the logic required for a calculator into fewer and fewer integrated circuits (chips) and calculator electronics was one of the leading edges of semiconductor development. U.S. semiconductor manufacturers led the world in large scale integration (LSI) semiconductor development, squeezing more and more functions into individual integrated circuits. This led to alliances between Japanese calculator manufacturers and U.S. semiconductor companies: Canon Inc. with Texas Instruments, Hayakawa Electric (later renamed Sharp Corporation) with North-American Rockwell Microelectronics (later renamed Rockwell International), Busicom with Mostek and Intel, and General Instrument with Sanyo.

There followed a series of electronic calculator models from these and other manufacturers, including Canon, Mathatronics, Olivetti, SCM (Smith-Corona-Marchant), Sony, Toshiba, and Wang. The early calculators used hundreds of germanium transistors, which were cheaper than silicon transistors, on multiple circuit boards. Display types used were CRT, cold-cathode Nixie tubes, and filament lamps. Memory technology was usually based on the delay-line memory or the magnetic-core memory, though the Toshiba "Toscal" BC-1411 appears to have used an early form of dynamic RAM built from discrete components. Already there was a desire for smaller and less power-hungry machines. The log is the inverse function of raising a number by a power. It takes the input number (base) and the output number and calculates which number the base must be raised to the power of to produce the output -- e.g. x^n=y --> logy(x) = n (the y would be given in subscript) and this is stated "Log base y of x equals n." If you have a modern calculator, there should be a log button with two blank rectangles allowing you to input the base and the output to find the power. On an older calculator, however, you will need to use a "log-law" to convert it into an equation involving the log function (meaning log base 10). Do this by typing logy/logx to give answer n. (Source: www.wikihow.com)

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