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The percentage increase calculator above computes an increase or decrease of a specific percentage of the input number. It basically involves converting a percent into its decimal equivalent, and either subtracting (decrease) or adding (increase) the decimal equivalent from and to 1, respectively. Multiplying the original number by this value will result in either an increase or decrease of the number by the given percent. Refer to the example below for clarification.

Most pocket calculators do all their calculations in binary-coded decimal (BCD) rather than binary. BCD is common in electronic systems where a numeric value is to be displayed, especially in systems consisting solely of digital logic, and not containing a microprocessor. By employing BCD, the manipulation of numerical data for display can be greatly simplified by treating each digit as a separate single sub-circuit. This matches much more closely the physical reality of display hardware—a designer might choose to use a series of separate identical seven-segment displays to build a metering circuit, for example. If the numeric quantity were stored and manipulated as pure binary, interfacing to such a display would require complex circuitry. Therefore, in cases where the calculations are relatively simple, working throughout with BCD can lead to a simpler overall system than converting to and from binary. (For example, CDs keep the track number in BCD, limiting them to 99 tracks.) (Source: en.wikipedia.org)

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Pascal's calculator could add and subtract two numbers directly and thus, if the tedium could be borne, multiply and divide by repetition. Schickard's machine, constructed several decades earlier, used a clever set of mechanised multiplication tables to ease the process of multiplication and division with the adding machine as a means of completing this operation. There is a debate about whether Pascal or Shickard should be credited as the known inventor of a calculating machine due to the differences (like the different aims) of both inventions.

Most calculators these days require electricity to operate. Portable, battery-powered calculators are popular with engineers and engineering students. Before 1970, a more primitive form of calculator, the slide rule , was commonly used. It consisted of a slat of wood, called the slide, that could be moved in and out of a reinforced pair of slats. Both the slide and the outer pair of slats had calibrated numerical scales. A movable, transparent sleeve called the cursor was used to align numerals on the scales. The slide rule did not require any source of power, but its precision was limited, and it was necessary to climb a learning curve to become proficient with it. (Source: whatis.techtarget.com)

 

 

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