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FutureStarrHow to Increase a Number by a Percentage Calculator
***This is a work of fiction***
The first step in increasing a number by a percentage is to convert the percent to a decimal. The easiest way to do this is move the decimal point two points to the left. For example, 30 percent as a decimal is 0.3, and 50 percent as a decimal is 0.5. If you have a calculator with a percent key (%), enter your number and press % to convert the percent to a decimal (you may have to press the = key on some models). Another way to work out the decimal is to remember that 100 percent is 1, because it is the whole of something. This means 50 percent is one-half (0.5), 25 percent is one-quarter (0.25), 75 percent is three-quarters (0.75) and so on. The concept of percent increase is basically the amount of increase from the original number to the final number in terms of 100 parts of the original. An increase of 5 percent would indicate that, if you split the original value into 100 parts, that value has increased by an additional 5 parts. So if the original value increased by 14 percent, the value would increase by 14 for every 100 units, 28 by every 200 units and so on. To make this even more clear, we will get into an example using the percent increase formula in the next section. Remember that in decimal multiplication, you multiply as if there were no decimal points, and the answer will have as many “decimal digits” to the right of the decimal point as the total number of decimal digits of all of the factors. So when you multiply 0.7 × 80, think of multiplying 7 × 80 = 560. Since 0.7 has one decimal digit, and 80 has none, the answer has one decimal digit: 56.0 Thus, 0.7 × 80 = 56.
As your maths skills develop, you can begin to see other ways of arriving at the same answer. The laptop example above is quite straightforward and with practise, you can use your mental maths skills to think about this problem in a different way to make it easier. In this case, you are trying to find 20%, so instead of finding 1% and then multiplying it by 20, you can find 10% and then simply double it. We know that 10% is the same as 1/10th and we can divide a number by 10 by moving the decimal place one place to left (removing a zero from 500). Therefore 10% of £500 is £50 and 20% is £100. Let's see if we can figure out what 30% of 6 is. So one way of thinking about 30%-- this literally means 30 per 100. So you could view this as 30/100 times 6 is the same thing as 30% of 6. Or you could view this as 30 hundredths times 6, so 0.30 times 6. Now we could solve both of these, and you'll see that we'll get the same answer. If you do this multiplication right over here, 30/100-- and you could view this times 6/1-- this is equal to 180/100. And let's see. We can simplify. We can divide the numerator and the denominator by 10. And then we can divide the numerator and the denominator by 2. And we will get 9/5, which is the same thing as 1 and 4/5. And then if we wanted to write this as a decimal, 4/5 is 0.8. And if you want to verify that, you could verify that 5 goes into 4-- and there's going to be a decimal. So let's throw some decimals in there. It goes into 4 zero times. So we don't have to worry about that. It goes into 40 eight times. 8 times 5 is 40. Subtract. You have no remainder, and you just have 0's left here. So 4/5 is 0.8. You've got the 1 there. This is the same thing as 1.8, which you would have gotten if you divided 5 into 9. You would've gotten 1.8. So 30% of 6 is equal to 1.8. And we can verify it doing this way as well. So if we were to multiply 0.30 times 6-- let's do that. And I could just write that literally as 0.3 times 6. Well, 3 times 6 is 18. I have only one digit behind the decimal amongst both of these numbers that I'm multiplying. I only have the 3 to the right of the decimal. So I'm only going to have one number to the right of the decimal here. So I just count one number. It's going to be 1.8. So either way you think about it or calculate it, 30% of 6 is 1.8. (Source: www.khanacademy.org)