FutureStarr

A Work Calculator:

## Work Calculator

via GIPHY

### Work

In Physics, work performed by an object is understood as the amount of energy that needs to be supplied to move by a certain distance. For example, it can be the energy required to carry heavy bags up the stairs or the kinetic energy resulting in the movement of the body. Generally, it is calculated as force multiplied by the displacement an object travels. Precisely speaking, it's a dot product between these two quantities. It is measured in joules (J), expressed asLike all other electronic devices, calculators work by processing information in binary form. We're used to thinking of numbers in our normal base-ten system, in which there are ten digits to work with: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9. The binary number system is a base-two system, which means there are only two digits to work with: 0 and 1. Thus, when you input numbers into a calculator, the integrated circuit converts those numbers to binary strings of 0s and 1s. Welcome, Mrs. Larrivee’s ELL Group! "The binary number system is a base-two system, which means there are only two digits to work with: 0 and 1. Thus, when you input numbers into a calculator, the integrated circuit converts those numbers to binary strings of 0s and 1s." We hope this helps! Thanks for WONDERing with us! :)

Can you remember Avogadro's constant to six decimal places? Can you figure out the square root of 747 in less than a second? Can you add up hundreds of numbers, one after another, without ever making a mistake? Pocket calculators can do all these things and more using tiny electronic switches called transistors. Let's take a peek inside a calculator and find out how it works!The first thing your calculator has to do is convert the decimal numbers you input to binary numbers it can work with, and it does that using a (fairly) simple circuit called a BCD (binary coded decimal) encoder. It's simpler than it sounds—and the animation below shows how it works for the numbers 1–9. There are 10 "input" keys (I've omitted zero) wired to four output lines. Each input is wired in such a way that it triggers one or more of the outputs, so the conversion process effectively happens through the pattern of the wiring. For example, key 1 triggers just the line on the right, giving us an output of 0001 in binary, while key 7 triggers three of the four lines giving us 0111 in binary (4 + 2 + 1). Artwork: Who invented the pocket calculator? Jack Kilby and colleagues at Texas Instruments in a patent filed in 1972 and granted two years later. Here's how it worked: (1) You typed your sums into the keyboard and watched the answer appear, shortly afterward, on a printed paper tape (there was no display) at the top (2). A magnifying lens (3) helped you decipher the tiny numbers produced by the printer (4). Inside the case, we can see the paper tape that feeds the printer (5). Beneath it, there's a huge bank of batteries (6), a relatively tiny box full of electronics (7), and the thermal printer mechanism (8). Find out more in US Patent 3,819,921: Miniature electronic calculator. Artwork courtesy of US Patent and Trademark Office (coloring and large numbers added for clarity). (Source: www.explainthatstuff.com)

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