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21 Out of 22 As a Percentage

It turns out that 22% of Americans can't see the sun when they are outside.

How to figure out percentages: the term “per cent” is derived from the Latin per centum, meaning “by the hundred” or can be explained, as the portion of a quantity proportional to its whole relative to “one hundred”. The sign for “per cent % ” evolved by gradual contraction of two circles (zeros) of 100 separated by a horizontal line, and the modern “%” symbol derived. In mathematics, a percentage is a number or ratio expressed as a fraction of 100. It is often denoted using the percent sign, “%”, or the abbreviated some time as “pct.” Or “pc” used in the case of quantities in economics. In mathematical statement “a percentage is a dimensionless number (pure number)”. For example, 81% (read as eighty one percent) and expressed as, equal to 81 portions of its whole quantity relative to 100. Following will help understanding further:Let’s enter a thought bubble and attempt to mentally process this with ideas and concepts we may already be familiar with. If we think about the meaning of the word percent, which we touched on earlier, we can use the fact that they are parts of a whole to help us understand what the calculators might be doing. For instance, 25% is 25 (the “part”) out of 100 (the “whole” in this case). We can also take advantage of the fact that we know 200 is 2 times 100. So, if 25% of 100 is 25, then 25% of 200, in theory should be 2 time that value or 2 x 25, which is 50.When comparing two values with each other, one is often interested in the percentage difference between the numbers. So, for example, if you want to determine whether there are 30% more men than women in a company, or whether this year, 28% less people went to the federal election than last year. Another real-world example could be shoe size comparisons. For instance, going from a women’s shoe size of US 7 to US 8, understanding that there is a 0.25 inch different between said shoe sizes, and wanting to know what percent this difference corresponds to.

Let's give ourselves a little bit of practice with percentages. So let's ask ourselves, what percent of-- I don't know, let's say what percent of 16 is 4? And I encourage you to pause this video and to try it out yourself. So when you're saying what percent of 16 is 4, percent is another way of saying, what fraction of 16 is 4? And we just need to write it as a percent, as per 100. So if you said what fraction of 16 is 4, you would say, well, look, this is the same thing as 4/16, which is the same thing as 1/4. But this is saying what fraction 4 is of 16. You'd say, well, 4 is 1/4 of 16. But that still doesn't answer our question. What percent? So in order to write this as a percent, we literally have to write it as something over 100. Percent literally means "per cent." The word "cent" you know from cents and century. It relates to the number 100. So it's per 100. So you could say, well, this is going to be equal to question mark over 100, the part of 100. And there's a bunch of ways that you could think about this. You could say, well, look, if in the denominator to go from 4 to 100, I have to multiply by 25. In the numerator to go from-- I need to also multiply by 25 in order to have an equivalent fraction. So I'm also going to multiply by 25. So 1/4 is the same thing as 25/100. And another way of saying 25/100 is this is 25 per 100, or 25%. So this is equal to 25%. Now, there's a couple of other ways you could have thought about it. You could have said well, 4/16, this is literally 4 divided by 16. Well, let me just do the division and convert to a decimal, which is very easy to convert to a percentage. So let's try to actually do this division right over here. So we're going to literally divide 4 by 16. Now, 16 goes into 4 zero times. 0 times 16 is 0. You subtract, and you get a 4. And we're not satisfied just having this remainder. We want to keep adding zeroes to get a decimal answer right over here. So let's put a decimal right over here. We're going into the tenths place. And let's throw some zeroes right over here. The decimal makes sure we keep track of the fact that we are now in the tenths, and in the hundredths, and in the thousandths place if we have to go that far. But let's bring another 0 down. 16 goes into 40 two times. 2 times 16 is 32. If you subtract, you get 8. And you could bring down another 0. And we have 16 goes into 80. Let's see, 16 goes into 80 five times. 5 times 16 is 80. You subtract, you have no remainder, and you're done. 4/16 is the same thing as 0.25. Now, 0.25 is the same thing as twenty-five hundredths. Or, this is the same thing as 25/100, which is the same thing as 25%. (Source: www.khanacademy.org)

It is forgivable to assume that the percentage sign "%" depicts a fraction. It does look like one at first glance, as does the division symbol, the obelus (÷). You may also question why the symbol has two zeroes in it. After all, isn’t dividing by zero undefined? Some sources claim that the two circles represent a shorthand for one hundred. That, while sort-of true, is not the whole story. The story behind it is much more complex. In the problem above, the fraction for Ms. Jones was easily converted to a percent. This is because It is easy to convert a fraction to a percent when the denominator is 100. If a fraction does not have a denominator of 100, you can convert it to an equivalent fraction with a denominator of 100, and then write the equivalent fraction as a percent. This is what was done in the problem above for Mr. McNeil. Let's look at some problems in which we use equivalent fractions to help us convert a fraction to a percent.

Let's give ourselves a little bit of practice with percentages. So let's ask ourselves, what percent of-- I don't know, let's say what percent of 16 is 4? And I encourage you to pause this video and to try it out yourself. So when you're saying what percent of 16 is 4, percent is another way of saying, what fraction of 16 is 4? And we just need to write it as a percent, as per 100. So if you said what fraction of 16 is 4, you would say, well, look, this is the same thing as 4/16, which is the same thing as 1/4. But this is saying what fraction 4 is of 16. You'd say, well, 4 is 1/4 of 16. But that still doesn't answer our question. What percent? So in order to write this as a percent, we literally have to write it as something over 100. Percent literally means "per cent." The word "cent" you know from cents and century. It relates to the number 100. So it's per 100. So you could say, well, this is going to be equal to question mark over 100, the part of 100. And there's a bunch of ways that you could think about this. You could say, well, look, if in the denominator to go from 4 to 100, I have to multiply by 25. In the numerator to go from-- I need to also multiply by 25 in order to have an equivalent fraction. So I'm also going to multiply by 25. So 1/4 is the same thing as 25/100. And another way of saying 25/100 is this is 25 per 100, or 25%. So this is equal to 25%. Now, there's a couple of other ways you could have thought about it. You could have said well, 4/16, this is literally 4 divided by 16. Well, let me just do the division and convert to a decimal, which is very easy to convert to a percentage. So let's try to actually do this division right over here. So we're going to literally divide 4 by 16. Now, 16 goes into 4 zero times. 0 times 16 is 0. You subtract, and you get a 4. And we're not satisfied just having this remainder. We want to keep adding zeroes to get a decimal answer right over here. So let's put a decimal right over here. We're going into the tenths place. And let's throw some zeroes right over here. The decimal makes sure we keep track of the fact that we are now in the tenths, and in the hundredths, and in the thousandths place if we have to go that far. But let's bring another 0 down. 16 goes into 40 two times. 2 times 16 is 32. If you subtract, you get 8. And you could bring down another 0. And we have 16 goes into 80. Let's see, 16 goes into 80 five times. 5 times 16 is 80. You subtract, you have no remainder, and you're done. 4/16 is the same thing as 0.25. Now, 0.25 is the same thing as twenty-five hundredths. Or, this is the same thing as 25/100, which is the same thing as 25%. (Source: www.khanacademy.org)