FutureStarr

Pallas Cat

Pallas Cat

Pallas Cat

The pallas' cat, a typical wild cat native to Spain, has a name derived from the nickname of a distant family member's town, Parma. The name “Parma” is a reference to a cat a cat considered a famous hunter, a skill typical of the pallas' cat.

CAT

Not to be confused with the Pampas cat. (Source: en.wikipedia.org The Pallas's cat (

The Pallas's cat was first described in 1776 by Peter Simon Pallas, who observed it in the vicinity of Lake Baikal. In the early 19th century, it was reported to occur in Tibet, and in the Transcaspian Region in the early 20th century. To date, it has been recorded across a large areal extent, albeit in widely spaced sites in the Caucasus, Iranian Plateau, Hindu Kush, parts of the Himalayas, Tibetan Plateau, Altai-Sayan region and South Siberian Mountains. It inhabits rocky montane grasslands and shrublands, where the snow cover is below 15–20 cm (6–8 in). It finds shelter in rock crevices and burrows, and preys foremost on lagomorphs and rodents. The female gives birth to between two and six kittens in spring. (Source: en.wikipedia.org)Otocolobus manul), also known as the manul, is a small wild cat with long and dense light grey fur. Its rounded ears are set low on the sides of the head. Its head-and-body length ranges from 46 to 65 cm (18 to 25+1⁄2 in) with a (Source:en.wikipedia.org))

Due to its widespread range and assumed large population, the Pallas's cat is listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List since 2020. Some population units are threatened by poaching, prey base decline due to rodent control programs, and habitat fragmentation as a result of mining and infrastructure projects. (Source: en.wikipedia.org The Pallas's cat has been kept in zoos since the early 1950s. As of 2018, 60 zoos in Europe, Russia, North America and Japan participate in Pallas's cat captive breeding programs. (Source:en.wikipedia.org))

The Pallas's cat's fur is light grey with pale yellowish-ochre or pale yellowish-reddish hues. (Source: en.wikipedia.org)

en.wikipedia.org en.wikipedia.org en.wikipedia.org)))The Pallas's cat's range extends from the Caucasus eastward to Central Asia, Mongolia and adjacent parts of Dzungaria and the Tibetan Plateau. It inhabits montane shrublands and grasslands, rocky outcrops, scree slopes and ravines in areas, where the continuous snow cover is below 15–20 cm The Pallas's cat inhabits rocky slopes in the Koh-i-Baba Range of the Hindu Kush. (Source:

On the Iranian Plateau, two Pallas's cats were encountered near the Aras River in northwestern Iran before the 1970s. (Source: en.wikipedia.org)The Pallas's cat occurs in alpine pastures of the upper Marshyangdi river valley in the central Himalayas. (Source: en.wikipedia.org)On the Iranian Plateau, two Pallas's cats were encountered near the Aras River in northwestern Iran before the 1970s. (Source:(6–8 in). (Source:

The Pallas's cat occurs in alpine pastures of the upper Marshyangdi river valley in the central Himalayas. (Source: en.wikipedia.org The presence of the Pallas's cat in the Himalayas was first reported in Ladakh's Indus valley in 1991. (Source:en.wikipedia.org eIn December 2012, the Pallas's cat was recorded for the first time in the Nepal Himalayas. It was photographed in the upper Marshyangdi river valley in alpine pastures at elevations of 4,200 m (13,800 ft) and 4,650 m (15,260 ft) in Annapurna Conservation Area. (Source:n.wikipedia.org)))

In central Mongolia, 29 Pallas's cat were fitted with radio collars between June 2005 and October 2007. They used 101 dens during this time, including 39 winter dens, 42 summer dens and 20 dens for raising kittens. The summer and winter dens usually had one entrance with a diameter of (Source: en.wikipedia.org)

The Pallas's cat is a highly specialised predator of small mammals, which it catches by stalking or ambushing near exits of burrows. It also pulls out rodents with its paws from shallow burrows. In the Altai Mountains, remains of long-tailed ground squirrel (Urocitellus undulatus), flat-skulled shrew (Sorex roboratus), Pallas's pika (Ochotona pallasi) and bird feathers were found near breeding burrows of Pallas's cats. In Transbaikal, it preys on Daurian pika (Ochotona dauurica), steppe pika (O. pusilla), Daurian ground squirrel (Spermophilus dauricus) and young of red-billed chough (Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax). (Source: en.wikipedia.org)

Scat samples of the Pallas's cat collected in the bufferzone of Khustain Nuruu National Park in central Mongolia contained foremost remains of Daurian pika, Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus), Mongolian silver vole (Alticola semicanus) and remains of passerine birds, beetles and grasshoppers. (Source: en.wikipedia.org)

A captive male Pallas's cat housed under natural lighting conditions showed increased aggressive and territorial behaviour at the onset of the breeding season, lasting from September to December. Its blood contained three times more testosterone than in the non-breeding season, and its ejaculate was more concentrated with more normal sperm forms and a higher motility of sperm. (Source: en.wikipedia.org en.wikipedia.org))In China, Mongolia and Russia, the Pallas's cat was once hunted for its fur in large numbers of more than 10,000 skins annually. In China and the former Soviet Union, hunting of the Pallas's cat decreased in the 1970s when it became legally protected. Mongolia exported 9,185 skins in 1987, but international trade has ceased since 1988. (Source:

Pallas's cats have also fallen victim in traps set for small mammals in Kazakhstan and in the Altai Republic. In Transbaikal, the Pallas's cat is threatened by poaching. In Mongolia, the use of the rodenticide bromadiolone in the frame of rodent control measures in the early 21st century poisoned the prey base of carnivores and raptors. (Source: en.wikipedia.org)

On the IUCN Red List, the Pallas's cat is classified as Least Concern since 2020 because of its wide-spread range and assumed large global population. It is listed in CITES Appendix II. Hunting it is prohibited in all range countries except Mongolia. Since 2009, it is legally protected in Afghanistan, where all hunting and trade with its body parts is banned. (Source: en.wikipedia.org)

Zoos in the former Soviet Union received most of the wild-caught Pallas's cats from the Transbaikal region and a few from Mongolia. Moscow Zoo initiated a studbook for the Pallas's cat in 1997. Since 2004, the Pallas's cat international studbook is managed by the Royal Zoological Society of Scotland, which also coordinates the captive breeding program for the Pallas's cat within the European Endangered Species Programme. As of 2018, 177 Pallas's cats were kept in 60 zoos in Europe, Russia, North America and Japan. (Source: en.wikipedia.org Between 1951 and 1979, the Beijing Zoo kept 16 Pallas's cats, but they lived for less than three years. (Source:en.wikipedia.org))

Black-footed Cat Project (Source: wildcatconservation.org)Well-furred cats from the cold Asian steppes, Pallas’s Cats Otocolobus manul are also called Manul, Steppe Cat or Rock Wildcat. (Source: wildcatconservation.org These small cats have a stocky body with thick, soft fur and an abundant dark, woolly underfur which is double the length of that on the rest of the body. The colour varies from a light grey to a yellowish buff and russet, with the white tips of the hair producing a frosted appearance. There are some faint stripes along the sides of the body (more visible on the summer coat), and the fur on the underside is darker and longer than that above. Their head is round and broad with scattered black spots on the forehead, and two distinct parallel black bars on each cheek. The large, owl-like eyes are yellow, and the pupils contract into small circles instead of the usual vertical slits. The ears are short, rounded, and set low on the sides of the head. They are buff on the backs. The legs are short and stout, and the tail is thickly furred with a broad terminal black band, and five to six narrow rings along it. (Source:wildcatconservation.org))

These small cats have a stocky body with thick, soft fur and an abundant dark, woolly underfur which is double the length of that on the rest of the body. The colour varies from a light grey to a yellowish buff and russet, with the white tips of the hair producing a frosted appearance. There are some faint stripes along the sides of the body (more visible on the summer coat), and the fur on the underside is darker and longer than that above. Their head is round and broad with scattered black spots on the forehead, and two distinct parallel black bars on each cheek. The large, owl-like eyes are yellow, and the pupils contract into small circles instead of the usual vertical slits. The ears are short, rounded, and set low on the sides of the head. They are buff on the backs. The legs are short and stout, and the tail is thickly furred with a broad terminal black band, and five to six narrow rings along it. (Source: wildcatconservation.org)

Populations of Pallas’s cats may vary directly with their prey base and appear to be most numerous where pikas and voles are abundant. Generally, the Pallas’s cat is considered to be widespread but not common across its range and has a fragmented distribution. The largest populations of Pallas’s cats are believed to exist in Mongolia. (Source: wildcatconservation.org

Pallas’s Cats look much heavier than they really are due to their stocky build and thick coat. They are well adapted to their habitat. The thick fur coat insulates them against the cold, and the well furred tail can be wrapped around the body like a warm muff. The well developed nictitating membrane (third eyelid) may afford protection against both the cold winds and the regular dust storms which arise in parts of their range. They are able to climb rocky crevices and cliff faces with ease. The flat head and low set ears are thought to be adaptations for stalking prey in open areas with relatively little cover. They hide for much of the day in caves or hollows under stones, or may adopt the burrows of other creatures such as marmots or foxes. (Source: wildcatconservation.org)Home range sizes are very large for such a small felid. Both sexes maintain home ranges with those of the males overlapping those of several females. In Mongolia, female territories ranged from 7.4-125 km², (average 23km²), while male ranges were 21-207 km² (average 98 km²). The few density estimates done on these cats revealed 4-8 individuals per 100 km². (Source:wildcatconservation.org))

Breeding is highly seasonal with mating taking place December-March and kittens born late March-May. The duration of oestrous in females is only 24-48 hours. Gestation has been measured between 66 and 75 days in captivity, and kittens have been born in late April and May in Siberia. The litter size is one to six, usually three or four. Kittens have a dark, woolly coat without the frosted appearance of the adults. The striping on the sides is more pronounced in kittens and fades as they grow. They moult their juvenile coat around two months of age, at which time they weigh 500 – 600 grams. They are independent at 4-5 months, and achieve adult size and weight around eight months of age. Sexual maturity is reached at 9-10 months. Pallas’s Cats have lived up to 12 years of age in captivity. (Source: wildcatconservation.org)

There have been very few studies conducted about the Pallas’s cat. Recent and ongoing studies from Mongolia and Russia have increased the knowledge base. This includes insight in its ecology and current threats from numerous radio-collared Pallas’s cats in Mongolia. Research has highlighted the importance of improving protection within and outside of protected areas. Despite 12% of the Pallas’s cat’s distribution in Mongolia lying within protected areas, illegal hunting is still frequent in these areas and Pallas’s cat’s large home range sizes may result in the species being difficult to protect within reserves. Protection of Pallas’s cats within reserves in Russia has increased and approximately 13% of the species’ range in Russia lies now within protected areas. (Source: wildcatconservation.org depletion of marmots which are commonly hunted.Their burrows are used by the cats to provide shelter, avoid predation, giving birth and raising young (Source:wildcatconservation.org))

In 2016, the Pallas’s cat International Conservation Alliance (PICA) was founded. PICA is a collaboration between the Royal Zoological Society of Scotland, Nordens Ark Zoo of Sweden and the Snow Leopard Trust, funded by Fondation Segré. PICA aims to increase the knowledge on Pallas’s cat distribution and suitable survey techniques, on Pallas’s cat basic ecology, improve awareness and communication, and develop a Conservation Action Plan. The first range-wide Conservation Strategy was developed together with PCWG and published in 2019. (Source: wildcatconservation.org Since 2012, the Pallas’s Cat Working Group (PCWG) has existed as a network consisting of around 30 members from range countries as well as international experts. PCWG aims to unite efforts of specialists in Pallas’s cat study and conservation all over its global range. (Source:wildcatconservation.org))

Thank you for telling me about these beautiful cats. Are they very under threat? I will never understand taking life for fashion. (Source: wildcatconservation.org […] weren’t domesticated or feral house cat kittens. These babies were a breed of wildcat known as Pallas cats, or the […] (Source:wildcatconservation.org wSadly, the beautiful Pallas Cats are under threat for a variety of reasons. Hunting for their pelts, poisoning of their prey species, loss of habitat and loss of prey species due to increased grazing of domestic animals are the biggest ones. (Source:ildcatconservation.org)))

The Pallas' cat (Otocolobus manul) is a small wildcat known for its unusual, and adorable, look: a flattened and rounded face, stocky build, and super fluffiness make it appear stout and plush. (Source: www.wired.com The Pallas' cat (Otocolobus manul) is a small wildcat known for its cute face, but it has plenty of other awesome features. (Source:www.wired.com))

1. The Pallas' cat also goes by the name manul. German naturalist Peter Pallas originally classified the cat as Felis manul in 1776. The word 'manul' has its roots in the Mongolian language. Its current scientific name, Otocolobus, comes from the Greek language and can be translated to 'ugly-eared.' When Pallas first described the cat, he erroneously suggested it was the ancestor of the domestic Persian breed because of its long fur, stout build, and flattened face. (Source: www.wired.com But they're more than just pretty faces. Read on to find out what else makes the Pallas' cat truly awesome. (Source:www.wired.com))

3. They have unusual pupils. Unlike other cats, the pupils of Pallas' cats contract into small circles rather than vertical slits. (Source: www.wired.com 2. All that fluff creates the illusion of size. Pallas' cats appear to be bigger and heavier than they actually are due to their stocky builds and long, dense coats. In reality, they're about the size of domestic cats: they measure up to 26 inches in body length (with an 8-12 inch tail) and weigh only around 10 pounds. (Source:www.wired.com w4. Pallas' cats are particular about their habitat. They live throughout central Asia, from western Iran to western China. Within this range, Pallas' cats prefer the cold and arid environments of rocky steppes and grasslands at elevations up to about 15,000 feet. (Source:ww.wired.com)))

Pallas' cats go through two major color phases. In the winter, their coats are grayer and more uniform in color, while in the summer they have more stripes and ochre colors in their fur. They have black rings on their tails, scattered black spots on their foreheads, and dark stripes running from their eyes down their cheeks. The frosted, silvery appearance of their coats is due to the white tips on their hairs. (Source: www.wired.com 5. Pallas' cats have the longest and densest fur of any cat. Their fur is nearly twice as long on their belly and tail as on their top and sides. Presumably, this helps keep the cats warm as they hunt on snow or frozen ground. The length and density of their fur also changes seasonally, growing longer and heavier in the winter. (Source:www.wired.com))

6. Pallas' cats are loners. They are solitary and territorial, with both males and females scent marking territories of about two to three miles. Pallas' cats spend their days in caves, crevices, and burrows made by other animals, emerging toward dusk to hunt. (Source: www.wired.com 7. They have an extremely short mating season. Female Pallas' cats are in estrus for only 26 to 42 hours, a shorter period than most cats. Mating occurs in February and March and females give birth to a litter of two to six kittens in April and May. By four months old, the kittens begin hunting with their mother, and they reach adult size by six months. They're ready to breed at the age of ten to eleven months. (Source:www.wired.com))

7. They have an extremely short mating season. Female Pallas' cats are in estrus for only 26 to 42 hours, a shorter period than most cats. Mating occurs in February and March and females give birth to a litter of two to six kittens in April and May. By four months old, the kittens begin hunting with their mother, and they reach adult size by six months. They're ready to breed at the age of ten to eleven months. (Source: www.wired.com 7. They have an extremely short mating season. Female Pallas' cats are in estrus for only 26 to 42 hours, a shorter period than most cats. Mating occurs in February and March and females give birth to a litter of two to six kittens in April and May. By four months old, the kittens begin hunting with their mother, and they reach adult size by six months. They're ready to breed at the age of ten to eleven months. (Source:www.wired.com w8. Pallas' cats

8. Pallas' cats are ambush hunters. They stalk their prey using short vegetation and rocky terrain for cover, or sometimes wait at entrances to burrows and pounce when their inhabitants exit. Pallas' cats prey mainly upon pikas as well as other small rodents, birds, and the occasional insect. (Source:

9. They're poor runners. The Pallas' cat's compact body makes it a poor runner. When chased, it seeks refuge on boulders or in small crevasses. (Source: www.wired.com) www.wired.com 8. Pallas' cats are ambush hunters. They stalk their prey using short vegetation and rocky terrain for cover, or sometimes wait at entrances to burrows and pounce when their inhabitants exit. Pallas' cats prey mainly upon pikas as well as other small rodents, birds, and the occasional insect. (Source:www.wired.com)) are ambush hunters. They stalk their prey using short vegetation and rocky terrain for cover, or sometimes wait at entrances to burrows and pounce when their inhabitants exit. Pallas' cats prey mainly upon pikas as well as other small rodents, birds, and the occasional insect. (Source:ww.wired.com)))

10. Pallas' cats make a variety of sounds. They yelp or growl when excited, making a sound similar to a small dog. Pallas' cats can also purr. Listen to audio of Pallas' cats here. (Source: www.wired.com 10. Pallas' cats make a variety of sounds. They yelp or growl when excited, making a sound similar to a small dog. Pallas' cats can also purr. Listen to audio of Pallas' cats here. (Source:www.wired.com))

 

Related Articles