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The National Baseball Hall of Fame is opening its doors to the public for the very first time. This is the latest in a series of events marking [. . .

TIME

The all-time record for the lowest single season earned run average by a pitcher pitching 300 or more innings is 1.12, set by Bob Gibson in 1968. The record for the lowest career earned run average is 1.82, held by Ed Walsh, who played from 1904 through 1917. (Source: en.wikipedia.org At times it can be misleading to judge relief pitchers solely on ERA, because they are charged only for runs scored by batters who reached base while batting against them. Thus, if a relief pitcher enters the game with his team leading by 1 run, with 2 outs and the bases loaded, and then gives up a single which scores 2 runs, he is not charged with those runs. If he retires the next batter (and pitches no more innings), his ERA for that game will be 0.00 despite having surrendered the lead. (He is likely recorded with a blown save.) Starting pitchers operate under the same rules but are not called upon to start pitching with runners already on base. In addition, relief pitchers know beforehand that they will only be pitching for a relatively short while, allowing them to exert themselves more for each pitch, unlike starters who typically need to conserve their energy over the course of a game in case they are asked to pitch 7 or more innings. The reliever's freedom to use their maximum energy for a few innings, or even for just a few batters, helps relievers keep their ERAs down. (Source:en.wikipedia.org))

At times it can be misleading to judge relief pitchers solely on ERA, because they are charged only for runs scored by batters who reached base while batting against them. Thus, if a relief pitcher enters the game with his team leading by 1 run, with 2 outs and the bases loaded, and then gives up a single which scores 2 runs, he is not charged with those runs. If he retires the next batter (and pitches no more innings), his ERA for that game will be 0.00 despite having surrendered the lead. (He is likely recorded with a blown save.) Starting pitchers operate under the same rules but are not called upon to start pitching with runners already on base. In addition, relief pitchers know beforehand that they will only be pitching for a relatively short while, allowing them to exert themselves more for each pitch, unlike starters who typically need to conserve their energy over the course of a game in case they are asked to pitch 7 or more innings. The reliever's freedom to use their maximum energy for a few innings, or even for just a few batters, helps relievers keep their ERAs down. (Source: en.wikipedia.org Pedro Martinez of the Red Sox and eight-time All-Star is a more modern example of a pitcher with an outstanding ERA. He had a career ERA of 2.93 and a 1.74 ERA in his best season in 2000. Martinez’s 2.93 was only the sixth-lowest ERA for a pitcher who had pitched at least 2,500 innings. (Source:thestadiumreviews.com))

For about as long as baseball has been played, players, coaches, and fans have pondered about how to properly evaluate players. As times change, the methods of evaluating players have evolved. (Source: coachingkidz.com ERA can be a little tricky to calculate at first because there are three numbers to take into consideration, but once you get the hang of calculating it a few times it shouldn’t be too difficult. (Source:coachingkidz.com))

As it turns out, Chadwick was generations ahead of his time, as wins and losses by a pitcher continued to be highly valued for many decades despite that statistic being more indicative of a team’s collective performance. (Source: coachingkidz.com The lowest career ERA of all-time (minimum 1,000 innings pitched) is by Hall of Famer Ed Walsh, who recorded a 1.82 earned run average between 1904 and 1917. The lowest for a pitcher who pitched exclusively in the live-ball era (post-1920) is 2.21, accomplished by Mariano Rivera between 1995 and 2013. Clayton Kershaw has the lowest career earned run average of any active pitcher at 2.44. (Source:coachingkidz.com))

The lowest career ERA of all-time (minimum 1,000 innings pitched) is by Hall of Famer Ed Walsh, who recorded a 1.82 earned run average between 1904 and 1917. The lowest for a pitcher who pitched exclusively in the live-ball era (post-1920) is 2.21, accomplished by Mariano Rivera between 1995 and 2013. Clayton Kershaw has the lowest career earned run average of any active pitcher at 2.44. (Source: coachingkidz.com Have you ever been to a baseball game to see a particular player, but that player doesn’t get to swing the bat each time he comes to the plate? Instead, the player finds himself trotting down to... (Source:coachingkidz.com))

The all-time single-season record for lowest ERA in a season is 0.86, set by Tim Keefe in 1880. The modern record is 1.12, set by Bob Gibson in 1968. The lowest single-season ERA of an active pitcher is 1.66, achieved by Zack Greinke in 2015. The career record is 1.82, held by Ed Walsh, and the active player with the lowest career ERA (among those with more than 1,000 innings pitched, a threshold that filters out most relief pitchers) is Clayton Kershaw, with an ERA of 2.44 through the 2019 season. Mariano Rivera (career ERA of 2.29 through the end of the 2006 season) finished the 2006 season with 881 2/3 innings pitched, and has a strong chance to finish with more than 1,000 innings lifetime, earning the right, in many fans' minds, to be considered on an equal footing with starters in debates involving the term "greatest pitcher". (Source: baseball.fandom.com)

The all-time single-season record for lowest ERA in a season is 0.86, set by Tim Keefe in 1880. The modern record is 1.12, set by Bob Gibson in 1968. The lowest single-season ERA of an active pitcher is 1.66, achieved by Zack Greinke in 2015. The career record is 1.82, held by Ed Walsh, and the active player with the lowest career ERA (among those with more than 1,000 innings pitched, a threshold that filters out most relief pitchers) is Clayton Kershaw, with an ERA of 2.44 through the 2019 season. Mariano Rivera (career ERA of 2.29 through the end of the 2006 season) finished the 2006 season with 881 2/3 innings pitched, and has a strong chance to finish with more than 1,000 innings lifetime, earning the right, in many fans' minds, to be considered on an equal footing with starters in debates involving the term "greatest pitcher". (Source: baseball.fandom.com)

In modern baseball, an ERA under 2.00 is considered exceptional and is rare. An ERA between 2.00 and 3.00 is also considered excellent and is only achieved by the best pitchers in the league. An ERA between 3.00 and 4.00 is above-average. An ERA between 4.00 and 5.00 is average; the majority of pitchers have an ERA in this range. An ERA above 5.00 is generally considered below-average, and a pitcher with an ERA above 6.00 for a prolonged period of time is usually in danger of demotion to the bullpen or a lower league. (Source: baseball.fandom.com)

In modern baseball, an ERA under 2.00 is considered exceptional and is rare. An ERA between 2.00 and 3.00 is also considered excellent and is only achieved by the best pitchers in the league. An ERA between 3.00 and 4.00 is above-average. An ERA between 4.00 and 5.00 is average; the majority of pitchers have an ERA in this range. An ERA above 5.00 is generally considered below-average, and a pitcher with an ERA above 6.00 for a prolonged period of time is usually in danger of demotion to the bullpen or a lower league. (Source: baseball.fandom.com)

Over the course of baseball history, the economics of the game have dictated that management practices change with technology, explaining the current trend in the game towards using empirical data with sophisticated statistical analysis to aid in decision making. At the heart of the decision-making process is the attempt to assess which players will make the greatest impact on a team’s chances of winning. We use the bevy of statistics available to both understand the history of baseball and attempt to predict its future. More than any other sport, the history of the game is referenced when talking about anything that is happening in the present. As author and baseball historian Stanley Cohen declared: “Baseball, almost alone among our sports, traffics unashamedly and gloriously in nostalgia, for only baseball understands time and treats it with respect. The history of other sports seems to begin anew with each generation, but baseball, that wondrous myth of twentieth century America, gets passed on like an inheritance” (6). Therefore, to understand baseball, one must understand both the history of the game and the economic drivers that lead to changes in the game on the field. (Source: thesportjournal.org)

Two specific rule changes favoring pitchers highlight the beginning of the Dead Ball Era. First, the size and width of home plate was changed from a 12 inch square base to a five-sided figure measuring 17 inches across, making the strike zone much larger (24). Second, foul balls began counting as strikes, which had been a heavy advantage for hitters (24). The impact of these rule changes was significant, thus: “with the larger plate and the new foul ball strike rule, strikeouts jumped more than 50 percent, while batting averages, home runs, slugging percentages, and runs per game sank to all-time lows” (24). It is thus argued, “The game belonged to the pitcher. The parks were large and lacked the enclosures which could invite the long ball” (21). (Source: thesportjournal.org)

In a continuing effort to raise offensive numbers the American League began using a Designated Hitter (DH) in 1973. The creation of the DH is argued as one of the most radical in baseball history because one entire league would not accept it. The AL, however, adopted it in hopes to add a spark to sagging offensive numbers and entice more fans to attend AL games (18). Expansion alone does not favor hitting or pitching, rather, it works to create a shortage of both. As a result, some contend that there was a great balance between pitching and hitting in the 1970’s (13). Alternatively, and because of the six year period where pitching clearly dominated, others claimed that: “Pitchers had assumed control and command of the game as they had at no time since the pre-Ruthian era of the dead ball” (6). It is clear that hitting did not dominate for the entirety of the expansion era, but there appears to be no clear consensus as to whether the era as a whole was dominated by pitching or if it was simply balanced. (Source: thesportjournal.org)

The foundations for free agency were established in 1966 with the MLB Players Association hiring Marvin Miller to be its executive director. Free agency marked a complete upheaval of a structure that had remained relatively unchanged for almost a century. In the first year twenty-four players became free agents, headlined by Reggie Jackson who signed a five-year $3 million deal with the Yankees. Players saw immediate results in the form of their salaries, and by 1979 the average salary was six times what it had been in 1966 (14). There was a clear change in how the game was structured, and similar to the last half of the expansion era, the rules on the field again favored the hitters as runs per game rose and offense was perceived to have dominated pitching. (Source: thesportjournal.org)

The irony of the Steroid Era is that it begins after steroids made it on MLB’s banned substance list (1991), but continues past the time that MLB actually began testing major league players (2003). As baseball came back from the player’s strike in 1994, attendance declined rapidly. A strong argument is made that: “Steroids may have saved baseball after the 1994-1995 strike, [as the strike] angered fans and resulted in attendance dropping by almost 10 million in both the National and American leagues” (14). MLB needed a way to bring fans back to the parks, and it was not until the famed Home Run Race between Mark McGwire and Sammy Sosa in 1998 that attendance numbers recovered. For this reason, the argument has been made that MLB allowed steroid use to go unchecked, and therefore allowed an explosion of offensive numbers. (Source: thesportjournal.org)

 

The second factor that led to labeling the period since 2006 as the Post-Steroid Era is the resurgence of pitching. The 2010 season in MLB was frequently referred to as “The Year of the Pitcher” (5). This is a distinction that was also given to the 1968 season, which led to the immediate and dramatic changes to the pitcher’s mound in the Expansion Era. For only the third time in MLB history, six no-hitters were thrown in 2010. During the 2012 season, seven no-hitters were thrown including three perfect games. The resurrection of pitching dominance and its correlation to harsher penalties for steroids appear to be more than a coincidence. (Source: thesportjournal.org The second factor that led to labeling the period since 2006 as the Post-Steroid Era is the resurgence of pitching. The 2010 season in MLB was frequently referred to as “The Year of the Pitcher” (5). This is a distinction that was also given to the 1968 season, which led to the immediate and dramatic changes to the pitcher’s mound in the Expansion Era. For only the third time in MLB history, six no-hitters were thrown in 2010. During the 2012 season, seven no-hitters were thrown including three perfect games. The resurrection of pitching dominance and its correlation to harsher penalties for steroids appear to be more than a coincidence. (Source:thesportjournal.org tRather than cut out the data prior to 1950, On-Base Percentage Against (OBPa) was tested as an alternative to OPSa. Several studies have concluded that OBP is a better predictor of winning percentage than SLG, as it has been found to be roughly twice as important (20). An analysis found that the coefficients for OBP are more than twice as large as the coefficients for SLG (10). In a subsequent study, the same researchers found that the coefficients for OBP range anywhere from 2.4 to 3.1 times more important than SLG for various periods they examined. As a result of this, they concluded that: “the relative contribution of OBP to winning is about twice that of Slugging, for the sample as a whole, and in every sub-period as well” (11). (Source:hesportjournal.org)))

Rather than cut out the data prior to 1950, On-Base Percentage Against (OBPa) was tested as an alternative to OPSa. Several studies have concluded that OBP is a better predictor of winning percentage than SLG, as it has been found to be roughly twice as important (20). An analysis found that the coefficients for OBP are more than twice as large as the coefficients for SLG (10). In a subsequent study, the same researchers found that the coefficients for OBP range anywhere from 2.4 to 3.1 times more important than SLG for various periods they examined. As a result of this, they concluded that: “the relative contribution of OBP to winning is about twice that of Slugging, for the sample as a whole, and in every sub-period as well” (11). (Source: thesportjournal.org)

 

Here we have listed the top 5 all-time leaders in ERA, you can see many of them are from before 1920. Yes, this all just because the rules changes in 1920 that got rid of the spitball and a few other factors. (Source: calculator-online.net Here we have listed the top 5 all-time leaders in ERA, you can see many of them are from before 1920. Yes, this all just because the rules changes in 1920 that got rid of the spitball and a few other factors. (Source:calculator-online.net))

The definition of a good ERA varies from year to year as with batting average. In the dead-ball era of the 1900s and 1910s, an ERA below 2.00 was referred to as a good ERA. In the late 1920s and through the 1930s (at that time the conditions of the game changed in a way that strongly favored hitters), below 4.00 was considered as a good ERA – Only the highest caliber pitchers like Dazzy Vance or Lefty Grove would consistently post an Earned Run Average (ERA) under 3.00 during these years. In the 1960s, other influences like ballparks with several dimensions were introduced, and sub 2.00 Earned Run Average’s returned. Now, in 2019, an (Earned Run Average) or ERA under 4.00 is again considered good. (Source: calculator-online.net The definition of a good ERA varies from year to year as with batting average. In the dead-ball era of the 1900s and 1910s, an ERA below 2.00 was referred to as a good ERA. In the late 1920s and through the 1930s (at that time the conditions of the game changed in a way that strongly favored hitters), below 4.00 was considered as a good ERA – Only the highest caliber pitchers like Dazzy Vance or Lefty Grove would consistently post an Earned Run Average (ERA) under 3.00 during these years. In the 1960s, other influences like ballparks with several dimensions were introduced, and sub 2.00 Earned Run Average’s returned. Now, in 2019, an (Earned Run Average) or ERA under 4.00 is again considered good. (Source:calculator-online.net))

 

The “New York Yankees” are said to be the best and valuable sports brand on the planet, it’s all just because of their success on the baseball field. The N.Y.Yankees has won the World Series Championships a record 27 times, with their closest rivals in terms of titles, the St. (Source: calculator-online.net The “New York Yankees” are said to be the best and valuable sports brand on the planet, it’s all just because of their success on the baseball field. The N.Y.Yankees has won the World Series Championships a record 27 times, with their closest rivals in terms of titles, the St. (Source:calculator-online.net))

 

 

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