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The main period for trillium blooms is from midwinter to the end of spring. This blooming period is relatively wide since soil, sunlight and local climate all influence the plant's flowering time based on the plant's many cultivars. For example, in the warmer USDA hardiness zones 8 and 9, species such as giant trillium (Trillium chloropetalum) bloom closer to the end of winter and into midspring, between February and May. Nearby species, like western trillium (Trillium ovatum), bloom slightly later, between late February and June. When different species grow together, both blooms have a chance at pollination by bees and ants; while one flower species closes, another is still wide open for pollinating action. Although trillium has rhizomes for local proliferation, pollination provides another way to reproduce the plant through seed.
Blooms cannot appear if the plant is under stress from excessive sun and heat. Trillium prefer shaded areas under dense tree canopies for the best chances of flowering. The cool weather in the late winter and spring allows the plant to harness its energy into flower production; blooms typically cannot survive into the hot summer months. Tree debris turning into natural mulch provides a high level of organic matter for trillium's voracious nutrient needs. Without fertile soil, the plant cannot create the three-petaled blooms each year.of patience until the plant is mature enough to produce flowers. Since trillium prefers deep shade, it is not subject to a lot of sunlight for photosynthesis; it is slow-growing from the very beginning of germination. You should see blooms in a healthy trillium grown from seed after seven to nine years. Because of this extended time period, most gardeners prefer propagation through plant division since growing from rhizomes is much faster compared to seed cultivation.
If you have a large garden area that you want covered in trillium, allow the yearly flowers to stay on the plant. Picking or pruning the flowers removes seeds from the garden; you want the seeds to stay in the garden for ant dispersal. Ants attracted to the blooms move the seeds to their underground tunnels. As a result, you have a number of chances for germination success. Ant tunnels remain sheltered from moisture evaporation, allowing seeds to have the moisture they need to crack their seed coats.The erect, odorless flowers are large, especially compared to other species of Trillium, with 4 to 7 cm (1.5 to 3 in) long petals, depending on age and vigor. The petals are shaped much like the leaves and curve outward. They have a visible venation, though this is not as heavily marked as on the leaves. Their overlapping bases and curve give the flowers a distinctive funnel shape. Between the veined petals, three acuminate (ending with a long point) sepals are visible; they are usually a paler shade of green than the leaves, and are sometimes streaked with maroon. The flowers are perched on a pedicel (i.e., flower stalk) raising them above the leaf whorl, and grow pinker as they age. (Source: en.wikipedia.org)