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Atlanto Occipitial

Atlanto Occipitial

Atlanto occipital joint

This bone is the attachment of the first cervical vertebra to the first thoracic vertebra. . . . It is situated between the skull and spine of humans and the skull and first sacral vertebra of some animals.

Atlanto Occipitial

Hall, G. C., Kinsman, M. J., Nazar, R. G., Hruska, R. T., Mansfield, K. J., Boakye, M., & Rahme, R. (2015). Atlanto-occipital dislocation. World journal of orthopedics, 6(2), 236–243. https://doi.org/10.5312/wjo.v6.i2.236

The atlanto-occipital articulation (also known as the C0-C1 joint/articulation) is comprised of a pair of condyloid synovial joints that connect the occipital bone (C0) to the first cervical vertebra (atlas/C1). (Source: radiopaedia.org)

anterior atlanto-occipital membrane: broad, dense fibrous structure which joins the upper border of the anterior arch of the atlas (C1) to the anterior inferior margin of the foramen magnum; it is a continuation of the anterior longitudinal ligament and prevents excessive neck extension. Laterally it blends with the joint capsule and medially is strengthened by a strong, rounded cord which connects the basilar occipital bone to the anterior atlantal tubercle. (Source: radiopaedia.org)

posterior atlanto-occipital membrane: a broad but thin fibrous membrane which attaches the upper border of the anterior surface of the posterior arch of the atlas (C1) to the posterior margin of the foramen magnum. It is continuous with the posterior atlantoaxial membrane inferiorly (part of the ligamentum flavum) and ligamentum nuchae posteriorly and lies immediately posterior to the spinal dura. Posteriorly lie the suboccipital muscles. The atlantic (V3) portion of the vertebral artery runs anteriorly to pierce the membrane and dura and become the dural (V4) portion. (Source: radiopaedia.org)

variable degree of communication between the atlanto-occipital joint and the cavity between the dens (odontoid peg) and transverse ligament of the cruciform ligament (Source: radiopaedia.org)

arcuate foramen - foramen visualized by the atlantic portion of the vertebral artery as it courses through a calcified posterior atlanto-occipital membrane (Source: radiopaedia.org)

atlanto-occipital dissociation (AOD) represents the most common cervical spine injury following a motor vehicle accident and is usually highly unstable with significant neurological morbidity (Source: radiopaedia.org)

1. Hall GC, Kinsman MJ, Nazar RG et-al. Atlanto-occipital dislocation. World J Orthop. 2015;6 (2): 236-43. doi:10.5312/wjo.v6.i2.236 - Free text at pubmed - Pubmed citation (Source: radiopaedia.org)

The atlanto-occipital joint (Capsula articularis atlantooccipitalis) is an articulation between the atlas bone and the occipital bone. It consists of a pair of condyloid joints. It is a synovial joint. (Source: en.wikipedia.org)

Headaches secondary to atlanto-occipital and atlanto-axial joints are often associated with suboccipital pain and aggravated by lateral rotation of the cervical spine and/or flexion or extension of the cervical spine. They are frequently under-diagnosed using traditional radiological evaluation including plain X-rays, computerized tomographic scan, and magnetic resonance imaging. While the natural history of most acute atlanto-occipital and atlanto-axial joint inflammation is resolution over a 2-to-4-week period with conservative management, however, when chronicity sets in, resolution is difficult to achieve using conservative measures, and interventional pain management procedures may be indicated. This review will describe the anatomy of the upper cervical spine, clinical presentation of atlanto-occipital and atlanto-axial joint involvement, and various modalities of treatment, including conservative and interventional modalities. (Source: pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov)

Manual fixation versus locking during upper cervical segmental mobilization. Part 1: an in vitro three-dimensional arthrokinematic analysis of manual flexion-extension mobilization of the atlanto-occipital joint. (Source: pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov)

pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov)The lateral atlanto-axial joint as a source of headache in congenital atlanto-occipital fusion. (Source:

Feasibility of Ultrasound Guided Atlanto-occipital Joint Injection. (Source: pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov)

The occiput is a thin bone that contributes to the calvaria and base of the skull. Its posterior surface is firmly attached to the parietal bones through the lamboid suture. Its lateral surfaces are attached to the temporal bones through the occipitomastoid sutures. Anteriorly, the occiput is attached to the sphenoid bone. On the posterior surface, a large, vertically oriented protuberance projects outwards, which at its highest point is referred to as the inion, which forms the attachment of the ligamentum nuchae. The occiput is especially notable for a large, triangular shaped hole in its inferior surface known as the foramen magnum, through which the brainstem and spinal cord connect at the cervicomedullary junction. A pair of occipital condyles lie anterolateral to the foramen magnum, and constitute the articulation points for the atlas. These articulation points are relatively flat, which limits the axial rotation of the atlanto-occipital joint. (Source: www.intechopen.com)

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