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Atlantic spadefish

Atlantic spadefish

Atlantic spadefish

The Atlantic spadefish is so called because its upper jaw resembles the blade of a spade—hence the scientific name Scorpaenodes squamosus.

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The Atlantic spadefish (Chaetodipterus faber) is a species of marine fish belonging to the family Ephippidae. It is the symbol of the North Carolina Aquariums. (Source: en.wikipedia.org Chaetodipterus faber is known by numerous other colloquial names, including angelfish, white angelfish, threetailed porgy, ocean cobbler, and moonfish.

Dooley, J.; Collette, B.; Aiken, K.A.; Marechal, J.; Pina Amargos, F.; Robertson, R.; Kishore, R.; Singh-Renton, S. (2015). "Chaetodipterus faber". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2015: e.T16435530A16509752. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-4.RLTS.T16435530A16509752.en. Retrieved 19 November 2021. (Source: en.wikipedia.org)

Body shape looks like a “spade” on playing cards (Humann, 1989). Body is deeper than it is long in length (Horst & Lane, 2006). Chaetodipterus faber ’s dorsal fin is deeply notched and nearly separate (McEachran & Fechhelm, 1998). Have scaly head and fins (Robins & Ray et al., 1986). They have teeth that are brush like; mouth small and terminal (Walls, 1975). Margin of preoperculum is finely serrate (McEachran & Fechhelm, 1998). Number of gill rakers found on first arch number 7-8 on the upper limb and 9-10 on the lower limb (McEachran & Fechhelm, 1998). Pectoral fin contains 17-19 rays (McEachran & Fechhelm, 1998). Dorsal fin contains 8-9 spines and 21-24 rays (McEachran & Fechhelm, 1998). Anal fin contains 3 spines and 18-19 rays (McEachran & Fechhelm, 1998). Presents truncated caudle fin in juveniles and emarginated in adults (McEachran & Fechhelm, 1998). Atlantic Spadefish have a rounded pectoral fin, no strong, sharp projections posteriorly from the gill cover (Shipp, 1988). Adults take on a black-and-white banded pattern that is very characteristic of the species (Hoese & Moore, 1977). They can have a silvery to tan, with 3-4 dark gray to brown bands across body (McEachran & Fechhelm, 1998). The black bars can be lost in more elderly fish (Hoese & Moore, 1977). Small juveniles are between 2cm and 30cm (Stokes, 1980). Young are blackish to dark brown, accompanied with a molting of white spots (McEachran & Fechhelm, 1998). Appearance thought to mimic plant debris, especially mangrove seed-pods (Snyder & Burgess, 2016). (Source: animaldiversity.org)

Have a pelagic life style (Marceniuk & Caies et al., 2017). Young often seen in shallow water, swimming at an angle, looking like dead leaves and similar plant debris (McEachran & Fechhelm, 1998). Schools of Chaetodipterus faber have been seen in open water (Hoese & Moore, 1977). Atlantic Spadefish can form schools of over 500 individuals (Horst & Lane, 2006). Known to readily take a baited hook (Böhlke & Chaplin, 1968). Often seen circling a diver closely, thought to be attracted by the bubbles (Humann, 1989). (Source: animaldiversity.org)

The diet of Chaetodipterus faber ’s diet supports their attraction to obstructions (Horst & Lane, 2006). They eat both planktonic and benthic invertebrates (McEachran & Fechhelm, 1998). Their diet also includes encrusting animals, plants, jellyfish, sponges, soft corals, tunicates, sea cucumbers, feather stars and sea anemones (Horst & Lane, 2006). Noted as preferring shellfish as food (Robins & Ray et al., 1986). Seen nibbling at barnacles and on shell incrusted sea walls (Allyn, 1969). (Source: animaldiversity.org)

Robertson, R., M. Vega-Cendejas, W. Smith-Vaniz, H. Perez-Espana. 2015. Chaetodipterus faber. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015. (Source: animaldiversity.org To cite this page: Morgan, L. 2018. "Chaetodipterus faber" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed November 29, 2021 at https://animaldiversity.org/accounts/Chaetodipterus_faber/ (Source:animaldiversity.org))

Chaetodipterus faber AquaMaps Data sources: GBIF OBIS (Source: www.fishbase.se)

Atlantic spadefishes, Chaetodipterus faber (Broussonet, 1782), aka angelfishes, atlantic spades, butterfly fishes, jackasses, leather coats, moonfish, ocean cobblers, paouas, pot covers, sea donkeys, spadefishes, threebanded sheepheads, threetailed porgy, tripletails, white angels, and white angelfishes, are silvery gray in color with vertical black bars. They are known and named for their characteristic spade-shaped body, which is compressed with a very short snout. Atlantic spadefishes typically grow to 30-45 cm with maximum lengths up to 91 cm and have 2 dorsal fins and 2 anal fins with high anterior lobes. They also have 9 dorsal spines, 21-24 dorsal soft rays, and 17-18 anal soft rays. Juveniles, which are commonly found in shallow coastal waters, are black in color for greater camouflage. Atlantic spadefishes are frequently curious about divers and their bubbles. (Source: www.marinebio.org)

Atlantic spadefishes, Chaetodipterus faber, are found around subtropical reefs, commonly off the coast of Florida and the Bahamas to southeastern Brazil and the Gulf of Mexico in depths ranging from 3-35 m. Adults often form schools in open water of up to 500 individuals. (Source: www.marinebio.org)

Atlantic spadefishes, Chaetodipterus faber, feed primarily on benthic invertebrates and plankton. (Source: www.marinebio.org Atlantic spadefishes, Chaetodipterus faber, are known to spawn off South Carolina between May and August, with most fish (97 percent) prepared to spawn in May. Some females were determined to have spawned more than once during this period. Maximum abundance of spadefish larvae occurred in these coastal waters between June and August when water temperatures were greater than or equal to 28°C and where salinities ranged from 26.7 to 31.3 parts per thousand (ppt). Small juveniles may sometimes be misidentified as young sheepshead, Archosargus probatocephalus. (Source:www.marinebio.org))

When ingested by humans, the Atlantic spadefish, Chaetodipterus faber, has been associated with ciguatera poisoning, which is caused primarily by ciguatoxins in the flesh of tropical marine fishes. Ciguatoxins, produced by marine dinoflagellates, grow on algae and are ingested by herbivorous (plant-eating) fishes. Larger fish also accumulate the toxin by feeding on smaller herbivorous fishes, and become reservoirs of toxic levels of ciguatoxin. The poisoning can last for several weeks and is diagnosed by signs and symptoms that include gastrointestinal problems, weakness in the arms and legs, and trouble distinguishing between hot and cold. (Source: www.marinebio.org)

Atlantic Spadefish, Chaetodipterus faber by Melvin Bell, SC Department of Natural Resources (Source: www.marinebio.org Hayes, J.W. 1990. Feeding habits, age, growth, and reproduction of Atlantic spadefish Chaetodipterus faber (Pisces: Ephippidae) in South Carolina. Fish. Bull. 88(1):67-83. (Source:www.marinebio.org))

Ditty JG, RF Shaw, JS Cope. 1994. A re-description of Atlantic spadefish larvae, Chaetodipterus faber (family: Ephippidae), and their distribution, abundance, and seasonal occurrence in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Fish Bull 92: 262-274. (Source: www.dnr.sc.gov)

www.dnr.sc.gov www.dnr.sc.gov))Hayse JW. 1987. Feeding habits, age, growth, and reproduction of Atlantic spadefish, Chaetodipterus faber (Pisces: Ephippidae), in South Carolina. Fish Bull 88:Schwartz FJ. 1998. Biological and ecological relationships for young Atlantic spadefish, Chaetodipterus faber (Pisces: Family Ephippidae) collected in the Cape Fear River estuary and adjacent waters, North Carolina, 1973 through 1978. J Elisha Mitchell Soc 114: 23-30. (Source: 67-83. (Source:

Feed

Inhabits a variety of different habitats along shallow coastal waters, including reefs, mangroves, sandy beaches, harbours, around wrecks and pilings, and under bridges. They are often seen in large schools of more than 500 adult individuals. Juveniles are apt to be encountered around mangroves in their dark coloration with white mottling. This cryptic coloration, when combined with the juveniles’ habit of floating tilted on its side, mimics the dead mangrove leaves and possibly other floating objects making the fish difficult to detect. Fish even up to a foot in length may take on the dark colour and float tilted on their sides over the light coloured sand. The barred forms are almost always vertically oriented. Feeds on a variety of invertebrates, both benthic and planktonic, as well as algae. Adult spadefish will readily take a baited hook and have a firm, well-flavoured flesh. There is no extensive fishery for them. Juveniles are occasionally caught for the live topical fish hobby market, but are not as greatly prized as many of the more colourful reef species. (Source: www.vims.edu)

Hayse JW. 1987. Feeding habits, age, growth, and reproduction of Atlantic spadefish, Chaetodipterus faber (Pisces: Ephippidae), in South Carolina. Fish Bull 88: 67-83. (Source: www.dnr.sc.gov)

Hayes, J.W. 1990. Feeding habits, age, growth, and reproduction of Atlantic spadefish Chaetodipterus faber (Pisces: Ephippidae) in South Carolina. Fish. Bull. 88(1):67-83. (Source: www.marinebio.org)

When ingested by humans, the Atlantic spadefish, Chaetodipterus faber, has been associated with ciguatera poisoning, which is caused primarily by ciguatoxins in the flesh of tropical marine fishes. Ciguatoxins, produced by marine dinoflagellates, grow on algae and are ingested by herbivorous (plant-eating) fishes. Larger fish also accumulate the toxin by feeding on smaller herbivorous fishes, and become reservoirs of toxic levels of ciguatoxin. The poisoning can last for several weeks and is diagnosed by signs and symptoms that include gastrointestinal problems, weakness in the arms and legs, and trouble distinguishing between hot and cold. (Source: www.marinebio.org)

Atlantic spadefishes, Chaetodipterus faber, feed primarily on benthic invertebrates and plankton. (Source: www.marinebio.org)

Abundant in shallow coastal waters, from mangroves and sandy beaches to wrecks and harbors. Juveniles (black phase) are common in estuaries and often found in very shallow water swimming at an angle resembling dead leaves or as infertile red mangrove pods and other debris. Adults often occur in very large schools of up to 500 individuals (Ref. 9710). Feed on benthic invertebrates like crustaceans, mollusks, annelids, cnidarians as well as on plankton (Ref. 35237). Good food fish (Ref. 5521); marketed fresh (Ref. 5217). Often circles divers (Ref. 9710). Minimum depth from Ref. 9710. In southeastern Brazil found between 23 and 45 m (Ref. 47377). Has been reared in captivity (Ref. 35425). (Source: www.fishbase.se)

Atlantic spadefish feed on small, benthic invertebrates including crustaceans, mollusks, annelids, and cnidarians. (Source: en.wikipedia.org)

 

 

 

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