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Botanic Gardens Conservation International (BGCI).; IUCN SSC Global Tree Specialist Group (2018). "Staphylea trifolia". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2018: e.T135957125A135957127. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-2.RLTS.T135957125A135957127.en. Retrieved 20 November 2021.Brouillet, Luc (2014). "Staphylea trifolia". In Flora of North America Editorial Committee (ed.). Flora of North America North of Mexico (FNA). 9. New York and Oxford – via eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
Staphylea trifolia, Bladdernut, is a shrub that is present in much of the northeast, south and upper Midwest; it also ranges into much of the eastern half of Canada. The bark is mostly grey with a slightly rough texture on the trunk and larger branches. Smaller branches are smooth with streaks of black interspersed with grey. Leaves are opposite and compound with 3 leaflets that are about 2-3” long, ovate, and finely serrated. The drooping clusters of bell-shaped flowers may be some of the first that you notice in the spring. Each flower is about 1/3” long and 1/4” across with five light green or dull pink sepals and five white petals. At the end of its blooming period the flowers are replaced by a green, 3-lobed seed pod that persists through the summer and turns light brown in the fall.
Staphylea trifolia (American Bladdernut) is a large, upright-spreading, deciduous shrub or small tree boasting drooping clusters of creamy-white, bell-shaped flowers in mid to late spring. Bees, butterflies, and other pollinating insects enjoy the nectar from the daintily pretty flowers. The blossoms give way to interesting egg-shaped, papery seed capsules, 1-2 in. long (2-5 cm), which mature in late summer and often persist into early winter. Resembling Japanese lanterns, they change from green in the summer to light brown during the fall, and are quite conspicuous. They can be used in dried flower arrangements. The finely serrated, trifoliate, dark green leaves, 3-6 in. long (7-15 cm), warm up to golden-yellow in fall, before falling to the ground, revealing the smooth, striated, greenish gray bark, adorned with vertical white fissures. American Bladdernut is a fast-growing, suckering shrub which forms dense colonies in the wild. A wonderful, trouble-free shrub that is perfect at the edge of natural, moist woodland settings. (Source: www.gardenia.net)