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The Cambrian period was characterized by rapid evolution of new animal phyla and diversity on Earth - commonly referred to as the "Cambrian explosion".
During the Cambrian period, all major groups of modern animals evolved and many other phyla appeared in fossil records. For paleontologists, this was an incredibly exciting time!
The Cambrian explosion is one of Earth's most fascinating periods. During this time, nearly all major groups of animal phyla evolved - from crustaceans and starfish to sponges, mollusks and worms.
However, there remain numerous unanswered questions regarding how this occurred. Scientists also wonder why certain animal groups evolved at all and how quickly.
Theories have been proposed to explain the origins of the Cambrian explosion. Some researchers suggest it was caused by an abrupt shift in environment; others hold that natural selection played a role.
Scientists need to determine exactly what happened during the Cambrian explosion and how long it lasted, in order to understand its effects on other organisms' evolution.
The Cambrian explosion was an enigmatic time in Earth's history. Yet there are a few common themes that can help us comprehend its events: diversification and technological advancement.
Diversification is the term used to describe the transformation of an organism's appearance and behavior during the Cambrian Period. While some animals underwent dramatic transformations during this time period, others evolved slowly over time.
For instance, some animals evolved rapidly into hard-shelled versions of their earlier soft-shelled relatives. These creatures were known as trilobites - marine arthropods with fossil records dating back to the Cambrian Period.
They were one of the most diverse and abundant groups of arthropods, spanning ten orders and 20,000 species.
Diversity within an animal community led to the creation of new animal groups. Some were highly successful, such as trilobites and archaeocyathids.
Some animals had less success, such as cnidarians and sponges; other creatures diversified but remained relatively stable.
Another intriguing theory suggests the Cambrian explosion was caused by an abrupt shift in ocean chemistry. This would have increased oxygen levels within the water and fostered more marine life.
In addition, some animals began burrowing into the sediments of the seafloor instead of lying atop it as they did previously. This provided them with access to previously untapped nutrients and a safe haven from predators - likely an adaptation for survival during the Early Cambrian.
At around 530 million years ago, there was an unprecedented explosion of evolutionary diversification known as the Cambrian explosion. This marked the first time many lineages of modern animals diverged from one another, although this was ultimately a brief event.
Diversification in animals can be caused by a number of factors, including changes to their environment, genetics and habitat. But diversity itself is the most influential factor.
At this time, there was a wide variety of animals including insects, crustaceans and arachnids. This provided plenty of options for scientists to study; more diversity meant different species had more chances to adapt to changing environments.
Trilobites were the most diverse animals during this time, an arthropod type. Their range was vast, consisting of species across ten distinct orders.
Diverse ocean life created an intense competition for space and resources in the oceans, leading to incredible success for trilobites but only 20 million years of existence.
These kinds of rapid changes to the animal kingdom would not occur again until the Neoproterozoic, approximately 30 million years later. Thus, the Cambrian explosion is only the start of a long process of transformation.
Diversification was essential in the evolution of these early animals, helping them to adapt and survive in harsh oceanic conditions. Through studying trilobites' fossil record, scientists have been able to determine exactly how long this period of rapid evolution lasted.
When investing in a particular asset class, it's wise to diversify your portfolio as much as possible. Doing this can reduce the potential loss of money if that investment decreases in value.
Stocks provide an excellent example of a portfolio that can be easily diversified. A well-diversified portfolio is composed of various stocks, making it a great way to accumulate savings.
Investors should remember that diversification does not guarantee returns or eliminate risk; rather, it simply reduces portfolio volatility. When markets decline, investors often switch to safer investments like bonds; however, a diversified portfolio can still be profitable even during times of declining market activity.
During the Cambrian period, there was an astonishing amount of evolution. Many new species emerged such as echinoderms, molluscs, worms, arthropods and chordates - organisms vastly different from what existed before.
This abrupt shift in Earth's evolution has been dubbed "Cambrian explosion". Biologists continue to debate what caused this abrupt period and its legacy.
Some scientists speculate that the sudden appearance of new animals was caused by an abrupt increase in oxygen, while others contend it was the result of some key evolutionary innovation like vision. Whatever the case may be, understanding what caused this revolution is essential for understanding animal origins and evolution.
Three primary themes can be used to explain what occurred during the Cambrian explosion: extrinsic forcing events, intrinsic mechanisms and environmental changes. These were the major catalysts that brought about such diversity of animal life during this time.
First and foremost, coelomates (coelom refers to a body cavity that houses internal organs) were the most prevalent animal phyla during this time. This group included arthropods, annelid worms, molluscs, echinoderms and chordates.
Second, many of the new phyla were highly adaptable. They could survive in a range of environments from acidic water to saline seas, making them perfect for adapting to changes in conditions during Cambrian evolution.
Third, many of the new animals were highly mobile and specialized for preying on other organisms. This was an integral part of their survival strategy during this period.
Fourth, some of the new species were so diverse that no single type could dominate in the animal community. Examples include trilobites - arthropods famous for their fossils.
Trace fossils from this period are some of the most significant fossils to have been discovered in various sedimentary layers. These are especially valuable since they preserve soft parts of organisms. For instance, the Burgess Shale contains an impressive collection of trace fossils that spans from an era absent in the fossil record to one marked by extensive diversification.
For over 150 years, scientists have sought to explain what caused the Cambrian explosion - an era in Earth's history that saw new animal phyla emerge. This period is commonly referred to as either "The Age of Animals" or the "Cambrian Explosion."
The Cambrian period is remembered for its rapid evolution of animal phyla and diversity. Many groups that we now recognize as existing today originated during this time, such as echinoderms, mollusks, and worms.
A variety of factors contributed to this rapid expansion, but ecological diversification was the primary force. Ecological diversification is the process by which life adapts to different environmental conditions. During the Cambrian, numerous types of life emerged - from symbiotic algae to animals living both underwater and on land.
Scientists believe the Cambrian period saw an unprecedented level of biodiversity on our planet, which scientists attribute to ecological pressure that enabled organisms to adapt in new environments.
Another significant development was the availability of a comprehensive genetic toolkit that enabled organisms to design new body plans. This opened up an era of unprecedented experimentation and competition between forms - something never seen again.
However, this open-minded experimentation could only last so long before dominant body plans emerged and took control of the biosphere. Thus, some researchers have suggested that the Cambrian Explosion was caused by internal evolutionary mechanisms rather than external forces.
Studies of molecular data have demonstrated that the genetic architecture necessary to explain this change was already well established during the Precambrian. Furthermore, it's difficult to imagine how internal evolutionary mechanisms could have caused such an extraordinary rapid rate of evolution.
Furthermore, some evidence suggests the transition to land was less abrupt than previously believed. Paul Knauth of Arizona State University has discovered evidence in Death Valley of flourishing mats of unicellular photosynthesizing organisms before the Cambrian explosion occurred.
Chumlee is a well-known star from the reality show Pawn Stars. He's been part of the show since its inception in 2009.
Austin Russell, better known by his stage name Chumlee, was arrested in March 2016 for allegedly having illegal drugs and guns. Although he pleaded guilty and avoided jail time, his legal troubles forced him to temporarily exit Pawn Stars.
Austin Lee Russell, better known by his stage name Chumlee, is a businessman and reality television star best known for his role on History Channel's Pawn Stars. On this show he documents the daily operations of Gold and Silver Pawn Shop in Las Vegas.
He's a regular cast member on the show and works alongside his best friend Corey "Big Hoss" Harrison, grandson of co-owner Richard Harrison. They've been employed at their shop since they were 21 years old; additionally, they've appeared on the show since its premiere in 2009.
On March 9, 2016, police arrested Chumlee after searching his home in connection with a sexual assault case against him. Officers allegedly discovered a firearm and multiple narcotics inside of his residence.
Chumlee was ordered to attend counseling after his arrest and forfeit some property seized during the raid, according to Chesnoff. Additionally, he was given three years' probation for his misdemeanor charge.
Chumlee's personal life was unaffected by all these legal matters, as Rick Harrison and his family stood by him throughout it all. They remain close to him to this day.
In 2017, Chumlee opened Chumlee's Candy on the Boulevard, located next to Gold and Silver Pawn Shop. Since then, he has resumed his role on the show.
Chumlee's arrest in 2016 came as a huge blow to him, but fortunately for him he avoided jail time. He was granted three years' probation and ordered to attend counseling.
He was fortunate that the sexual assault allegation against him did not lead to charges. Additionally, he was able to begin a new life with Olivia Rademann.
In 2019, they got engaged in Hawaii. Since then, they have been married and have a son named Hunter.
After several years since his arrest, it's impossible to know how much he has matured. Nonetheless, he remains alive and active on social media platforms.
He remains a fan favorite on the show, with his merchandise selling more than any other pawn star's. If you're an avid viewer, don't miss him on any upcoming seasons!
Celebrity couples often showcase every detail of their relationship online, but some opt to keep things private. One such couple is Pawn Stars veteran Austin 'Chumlee' Russell and his wife Olivia Rademann.
In August 2018 the couple got engaged and got hitched one year later in Hawaii. Additionally, they held a pre-wedding party the previous month of May 2019.
Chumlee and Olivia first met in 2013, but their relationship only developed in 2016 when he faced legal troubles. He was arrested for having drugs and firearms in March 2016, and Olivia provided legal guidance throughout his ordeal.
Chumlee and Olivia managed to stay together despite the difficulties in their relationship. They remained best friends, providing each other with support during difficult times, until finally getting engaged a few years later.
After their nuptials, they spent some quality time together as a married couple in Hawaii. They enjoyed an idyllic vacation and shared some sweet pictures on social media platforms.
Rumors persist that Chumlee and Olivia have broken up, which appears to be supported by some Instagram snooping that suggests they no longer are an item.
Although no official announcement has been made regarding their split, it appears as if Chumlee and Olivia may have parted ways in 2020. Their respective Instagram pages lack any photos taken before January 2020, while their Facebook profiles lack any images either.
Olivia's Instagram feed now shows her cuddling up to professional poker player Jake Schindler. It is unclear if this was the reason for their split, but it appears they were in a romantic relationship at this time, which could explain why Olivia is so effusive about him.
Another possible explanation for why Chumlee and his partner might have separated is due to legal issues. When police raided Chumlee's home in March 2016, they discovered an assortment of illicit substances and firearms. Although he escaped jail time, he still faced 20 felony charges.
After years of ups and downs, Chumlee finally got to know his new wife better. They became close, and are now deeply in love.
Rumors swirled that "Pawn Stars" star Chumlee had passed away from a heart attack earlier this week, but he's actually doing fine. In fact, he feels so confident about his health that he opened a candy shop inside Rick Harrison's Gold and Silver Pawnshop to celebrate.
Rumors were spread across social media by netizens in an effort to gain attention, which often occurs when people share news out of excitement rather than verifying it. This can lead to death hoaxes - when people fabricate stories about a celebrity's death just for attention.
In this instance, tabloid website ebuzzd ran a story claiming Chumlee had passed away. However, the actor is alive and actively marketing his new candy shop on Instagram.
His wife Olivia Rademann also denied the rumor on Twitter, asserting she had no knowledge of any danger to him and that he is in excellent health.
Given the prevalence of fake news online, it's essential to be informed when rumors spread quickly. This is especially pertinent when they involve celebrities.
Many celebrities, such as Justin Bieber and Wayne Knight, have fallen prey to false death rumors. These reports have caused widespread fear among fans.
Death rumors can be false in several ways. Sometimes they are accidental, while others are created by those spreading the news of a celebrity's passing.
False rumors about death can be even more troubling than their real counterparts. For instance, some false reports can influence an election or alter how celebrities are perceived by the public.
Rumors can also be invented by those seeking to capitalize on the passing of a celebrity. As such, much fake news spread on social media is created by those seeking to make money.
Aside from this, some people create false rumors about celebrities' deaths out of anger or revenge. No matter the motivation, these false reports remain a major problem on the internet and should be taken seriously.
Chumlee is an American businessman and reality television star best known for his appearances on History Channel's Pawn Stars. With an estimated net worth of $5 million dollars, he's worth watching closely.
He was born on September 8, 1982 in Henderson, Nevada and quickly gained notoriety on the popular show "Pawn Stars," which follows the daily operations at Gold & Silver Pawn Shop in Las Vegas as well as its clients and employees.
Chumlee not only works at a pawnshop but has also built his own business selling novelty items he designed. As one of the breakout stars on "Pawn Stars," his popularity with fans has led to more merchandise sales than any other cast member in show history.
Before his job at Gold & Silver, he had been working as a waiter at a nearby restaurant. However, after the show's premiere, he took full-time employment at Rick Harrison's pawnshop, owned by Henry Morgan.
Chumlee has been an integral member of the staff at Pawn Shop West for many years, working closely with Rick and Corey Harrison. His knowledge of video games, sneakers, and pinball machines has proven to be invaluable to the store's success; helping it remain a standout destination.
Chumlee opened Chumlee's Candy on the Boulevard in 2017, located opposite a pawnshop. Here they offer an assortment of delectable confectionery including Pez and Big League Chew bubble gum.
His brother, Sage Russell, also manages the shop. They have been friends for many years.
Chumlee boasts a massive social media following, boasting 632k followers on Instagram and 208K on Twitter. He also has an expansive circle of friends who appreciate his unique style.
Chumlee takes a healthy approach to life when not filming Pawn Stars and has worked on changing his physique to shed pounds. Additionally, he loves travelling and has taken many trips abroad for work-related meetings and conferences.
He recently underwent bariatric surgery to shed 100 pounds from his body.
He was arrested in 2016 on drug and gun charges, but was able to avoid jail time by signing a three-year probation and counseling agreement. During this period, he had to forfeit all items confiscated from him including drugs and guns - an important victory which should help him steer clear of further legal troubles in the future.