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CDC Warns of Increase of Drug-Resistant Shigella

CDC Warns of Increase of Drug-Resistant Shigella

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Shigella is a bacteria that causes bloody diarrhea and can be spread easily. Additionally, Shigella may spread antimicrobial resistance genes to other bacteria infected with the intestine, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

At present, approximately 5% of infections reported to the CDC are caused by drug-resistant strains of Shigella. These germs, known as extensively drug-resistant (XDR), have been on the rise since 2015.

Infections

Shigella is a Gram-negative bacteria that causes bloody diarrhea and other illness in young children, usually by inhaling foods or water that have been contaminated with human feces.

Infection typically begins with several days of watery, loose stools. Some people may also experience abdominal cramps and fever. Other signs of infection include vomiting, nausea and abdominal pain.

Shigellosis typically manifests within a few days after exposure to bacteria. While some symptoms may be mild and resolve without treatment, others require medical intervention for diagnosis and management.

Shigellosis can spread through touch, especially if you haven't washed your hands thoroughly. Germs from an infected person's hands can then be transferred onto objects like doorknobs, toys and other surfaces. You may also contract the illness by eating or drinking contaminated food or water like raw fish picked up from fields with animals having their feces on them.

Hand-washing with soap and water is the most effective way to prevent shigellosis. Do this frequently, before eating or touching your face. Additionally, using a hand sanitizer on your hands may reduce the risk of getting this infection.

Shigellosis can be a serious illness that requires antibiotics for treatment. Antibiotics can reduce the length and severity of the illness, as well as decrease the chance that others become infected with bacteria.

Antibiotics can also be given to children to reduce their risk of dehydration. They may be administered orally or with an IV drip (a tube inserted directly into a vein).

Diagnosing Shigella infection with a doctor is essential, as they can advise the best antibiotics to take for best results. Laboratory testing may also be done to identify which strain of Shigella is causing the infection and which antibiotics would work best to eliminate it.

CDC is alerting healthcare professionals to an increase in drug-resistant infections caused by Shigella. They encourage providers to report extensively drug-resistant strains of this bacteria to their state or local health department and educate patients and communities at increased risk about prevention and transmission methods.

Symptoms

Shigella is a type of bacteria that causes an infectious stomach infection known as shigellosis. Symptoms include bloody diarrhea, fever and abdominal cramps; moreover, this infection has the potential to spread to other people.

Shigellosis can have more serious complications for young children and those with weakened immune systems due to illness, treatment or medical conditions. These individuals may experience dehydration, electrolyte imbalance and an increasingly serious illness that worsens. These individuals may require hospitalization for further medical care.

Infection is diagnosed when a laboratory test detects Shigella bacteria in stool samples from an ill person. This could be done either through culture isolation of the bacteria or rapid diagnostic test that detects its genetic material.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have issued an alert to clinicians and public health officials that some Shigella strains are becoming resistant to the antibiotic ciprofloxacin, a key treatment for shigellosis. According to their advisory, those Shigella strains that are resistant have at least one quinolone resistance gene.

CDC suggests clinicians report extensively drug-resistant Shigella infections to their state or local health department and educate patients at increased risk. Last year, CDC noted that approximately 5% of Shigella infections reported were caused by highly resistant strains.

According to the agency, clinicians should incorporate stool culture and susceptibility tests into their shigellosis workups. Furthermore, antibiotic treatment should only be reserved for severe cases or those identified as urgent needs.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), an increase has been detected in Shigella strains with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values between 0.12 and 1.0 mcg/mL or higher. These strains possess at least one quinolone resistance gene and are more sensitive than previous strains to this drug than others, according to CDC.

Shigella strains that are drug-resistant are highly transmissible, meaning they can easily be spread to other people through faecal-oral contact and contaminated food and water. Furthermore, these bacteria could spread antimicrobial resistance genes to bacteria living in the intestines, the agency warns.

Shigella infections, which are drug-resistant strains of Shigella, can be more serious for people with weakened immune systems. Therefore, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) advise healthcare providers to report such infections to their state or local health department and follow the treatment guidelines provided.

Prevention

Shigella infection is a common cause of diarrhea that can be watery and bloody. It spreads through faecal-oral contamination, with most people getting it through contact with contaminated food or water. Furthermore, infections can be transmitted through sexual activity or the feces of an infected individual.

In most cases, symptoms begin 1-2 days after infection and last 7 days. You may experience a fever and feel very unwell during this time; in severe cases you might require antibiotics for treatment. Fortunately, most people recover on their own or with medical assistance.

Shigellosis infections are most common among children under 5 years old and spread mainly in child care or school settings. However, people of all ages can contract a Shigellosis infection. Travelers to countries with poor sanitation and hygiene systems are especially at risk for picking up a Shigella infection.

Healthcare providers can test patients for Shigella infections to determine which antibiotics they should take. The most effective antibiotics to treat Shigella infection include ciprofloxacin, azithromycin, and ceftriaxone.

Antibiotic resistance is an issue in many infectious diseases, such as Shigella. As bacteria become increasingly resistant to antibiotics, they cannot be eliminated by most drugs used to treat them.

To avoid shigellosis infection, it is essential to regularly wash your hands with soap and water after using the bathroom or changing diapers. Additionally, avoid sharing utensils or preparing food while you are sick with diarrhea as this will help protect against transmission of the illness.

Additionally, you should avoid eating or drinking water from untreated ponds, lakes and swimming pools. These areas may be contaminated due to sewage leaks or infected swimmers with diarrhea.

A recent CDC report on antibiotic resistance revealed that Shigella bacteria are becoming increasingly resistant to certain drugs used for treating infections, particularly fluoroquinolones. Furthermore, this has created more difficult-to-treat oral and intravenous (IV) medications for treatment.

Drug-resistant Shigella infections can have devastating consequences, leading to serious health complications and deaths. They represent a global public health crisis that impacts millions of people around the world, and CDC works tirelessly to reduce their incidence and improve treatment for those affected by them.

Treatment

Shigella bacteria, which cause diarrhea that lasts a week or more and may also present with fever and stomach cramps, are becoming increasingly resistant to antibiotic treatment. This poses an acute danger not only to the millions of people who contract infections from these germs every year but also those who remain uninfected.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) urge healthcare professionals to be on the lookout for and report extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains of shigella infection, as these infections can be difficult to treat. Unfortunately, XDR strains often resist all commonly recommended empiric and alternative antibiotics including azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and ampicillin.

Despite the rising prevalence of antimicrobial resistance, many antimicrobial agents have been proven effective for treating Shigella dysentery. Unfortunately, there is a lack of data regarding clinical outcomes among paediatric or adult patients. Therefore, an extensive assessment is necessary to determine whether XDR strains of Shigella are susceptible to empirical antibiotic therapy when infections occur in community-acquired infections and identify suitable drug regimens for treatment.

In the United States, antibiotic-resistant Shigella are most frequently seen among young children and those with underlying medical conditions. As such, healthcare providers should include XDR Shigella in their differential diagnosis of acute diarrhea in these populations.

As such, the CDC recommends that clinicians utilize a risk-benefit approach when selecting an antibiotic to treat an XDR case of shigella infection, taking into account patient age, resistance risk and local drug availability. Possible drugs to consider include nalidixic acid, newer quinolones and amnidocillin pivoxil.

Clinicians should also consider the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of their preferred antibiotic, if available. If ciprofloxacin's MIC is 0.12 mcg/mL or higher is identified in a laboratory report, clinicians should avoid prescribing fluoroquinolones since these antibiotics may be less effective and increase transmission risks.

In addition, clinicians who are uncertain about antibiotic choice should consult with microbiology lab and infectious disease specialists. Together, they should work closely with patients and community members to assess if XDR Shigella strains can be prevented or controlled through other interventions.

Jake Paul takes first ring defeat by split decision to Fury

Jake Paul Takes First Ring Loss by Split Decision to Tommy Fury

Jake Paul suffered his first ever defeat by split decision to Tommy Fury in Saudi Arabia. The former Love Island contestant and professional boxer knocked YouTuber Paul out with a brutal right hand in the eighth round.

Two and half years after transitioning from influencer to boxer, Paul has finally faced off against a real opponent: Tommy Fury. Initially scheduled for their fight last month, Tommy had to withdraw due to visa issues.

Paul vs. Fury

On Sunday night, YouTube star Jake Paul suffered his first defeat by split decision to Fury in an eight-round cruiserweight bout at Diriyah Arena in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Despite leading for most of the bout, Fury ultimately prevailed by a majority decision.

Paul had never boxed before his professional career began in 2020, and this will be his first opportunity to do so. Unlike MMA, boxing does not give social media stars their own fights; thus, this will be Paul's first chance to face off against an opponent who has dedicated themselves solely to learning the craft of boxing.

Paul is taking a huge step up in competition, having previously only faced off against MMA fighters and former basketball players. Additionally, he will be increasing his weight to face Hasim Rahman Jr. from the United Kingdom who is undefeated 12-1 and part of an illustrious boxing family.

Round 1

On Saturday night, Jake Paul suffers his first loss by split decision to Fury in a titanic clash of two bitter rivals. For Paul, it's an important battle as he strives to gain an official WBC ranking while Fury, the former Love Island star who must win if he wants any chance at making it big in boxing.

Round 1 began well for Paul, who delivered several solid shots to both body and head. But Fury took control early in the third with a series of hard shots including a right uppercut which left Paul feeling for the first time in his career.

Round 2

On Sunday night, Jake Paul suffered his first defeat by split decision to Fury in an ESPN+ pay-per-view event. Two judges scored the fight 76-73 for Fury and 75-74 in favor of Paul.

Paul appeared to be in control early with a jab that put Fury at a distance, yet he failed to connect on any meaningful shots that found their way onto the scorecards.

In this round, the referee had a significant role. Paul was docked a point for clinching and Fury had one point deducted for punching her opponent in the head.

Both boxers clinched heavily throughout the round, but Fury proved more successful with his shots, landing two big combinations and taking the round. Following the fight, Paul broke down in tears in a corner as they shared an emotional moment - an inspiring testament to Paul's progress.

Round 3

Jake Paul suffered his first defeat by split decision to Tommy Fury, the half-brother of world heavyweight champion Tyson Fury. Before facing Fury, Paul had already battled fellow YouTuber Nate Robinson and three MMA fighters.

The fight began with a scrappy opening round as Paul maneuvered Fury around from the centre of the ring before both men unleashed an early barrage of strikes in quick succession.

In Round 5, the referee docked Paul a point after multiple warnings and deducted one for Fury for clinching in the sixth. Despite those deductions, both judges scored the fight 76-73 in Fury's favor.

Round 4

On Sunday night in a cruiserweight bout at Diriyah Arena in Saudi Arabia, Paul suffered his first loss by split decision to Fury. Two judges scored the fight 76-73 for Fury while the third judge favored Paul with an advantage of 75-74.

Round 4 begins and Paul puts his hands up in the opening seconds, showing a much more disciplined approach than many expected. He is light on his feet and able to control distance with the jab, though he struggles to land clean shots.

Woodley has a good start with his jab, but his shots aren't quite as hard or accurate as Paul's. He may not get into the clinch as often, but it appears he is doing well to reduce range and make it harder for Paul to penetrate.

Paul looks more confident in the ring and attempts to land more power shots. He can still get into a clinch and exerts pressure on the body.

Round 5

Round 5 saw Tommy Fury unleash his jab with abandon, quickly setting Paul on the back foot and landing several combination shots. With that behind them, Fury looked set for a dominant performance from Round 6.

Unfortunately, it was a round in which both fighters lost points. Ultimately, it evened out and Jake Paul suffered his first ring defeat.

Fury ultimately came out on top, landing several shots that Paul hadn't seen before and winning the round with some punches to Paul's back head. It was a close call, but Fury emerged victorious.

Round 6

On Sunday, YouTuber turned boxer Jake Paul suffered his first defeat by split decision to Fury in an eight-round bout in Saudi Arabia. It was a fiercely competitive fight with heavy referee interference and point deductions that disrupted the action.

Round 6 featured a barrage of big shots from both fighters, but Fury had the edge. He landed more power punches (49-24) and had a higher percentage of jabs (39-25).

Paul, who had six fights under his belt before Sunday, had some promising moments but couldn't quite capitalize on them. In the fifth round he took away a point for pushing Fury's head down in clinches and got penalized again in the sixth for excessive holding. This set up an opportune moment for Paul in Round 8 when he connected with a left jab that sent Fury sprawling onto the canvas.

Round 7

On Sunday night, Jake Paul suffered his first defeat by split decision to Tommy Fury on an ESPN+ pay-per-view from Saudi Arabia. Despite a knockdown in the final round, Fury managed to earn two of the three judges' votes in this fight.

In the opening round, both fighters took their time getting going but once they did they began to go heavy-handed. Fury's jab proved crucial in keeping Paul at bay, repeatedly popping him in the face and forcing him out of range for shots.

In the second round, Fury took control of the pace and started hitting meaningful shots. Though Paul was landing more accurate shots, he didn't possess any major overhand rights to speak of.

Round 8

On Sunday, YouTuber Jake Paul suffered his first defeat by split decision to Fury in a highly-anticipated fight between two boxers who have been feuding for years over postponed bouts.

After being knocked down in Round 8, Paul was unable to mount a comeback in the closing rounds of their cruiserweight fight, as Fury maintained control for long stretches throughout the eight-round contest.

Tommy Fury proved to be the superior fighter, and his younger half-brother to heavyweight champion Tyson Fury made an impression by controlling long stretches throughout this contest. While Paul landed a few big shots, it was the older Fury who displayed more energy and consistency throughout.

Round 9

Paul has been completely outclassed this round and Fury appears to be on the offensive with some impressive combination shots and heavy punches that have put the champion on the back foot.

It promises to be an exciting opening round and whoever does the best work here will emerge victor. Zizo looks sharp behind his jab while Martinez is doubling up nicely but can't connect on his big shots, leaving this fight close-knit.

Both fighters are trying to absorb as many of their opponent's shots as possible and it is beginning to feel like a race for the finish. The referee should ensure no points are deducted here.

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