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YouTube History: Videos, Browse Public Video Playlists

YouTube History: Videos, Browse Public Video Playlists

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YouTube History: Videos, Browse Public Video Playlists

If you want to find videos online, YouTube is an excellent resource. Its user interface allows you to interact with videos, browse public video playlists, and customize your settings. You can search for videos by keyword, topic, or category, or filter the results by date and popularity. You can even view chart rankings for music videos, or subscribe to the Most Popular on YouTube channel. But what's all the fuss about? Let's find out! Read on to learn more about YouTube!

YouTube is a video-sharing website

YouTube is an online video-sharing website that has exploded in popularity. It has shaped popular culture and influenced internet trends, spawning a legion of multimillionaire celebrities. But it is also the site of many controversy, ranging from its alleged role in spreading misinformation to its role in endangering child safety. Let's explore the many facets of YouTube and its impact on our daily lives.

Views

YouTube has been one of the leading video-sharing websites for the past decade, and has recently been expanding its offerings. Its services are growing faster than ever, and many of its videos now have over 100 million views in less than a week. It has also entered into a marketing partnership with the major motion picture studios, including Disney and NBC. The company is a leader in online video, with a market share of 43% in the US.

The company also started trials in June 2007 on its Content ID system, which detects videos uploaded infringing copyrights. This system was deemed necessary by Google CEO Eric Schmidt after a Viacom lawsuit claimed that YouTube profited from content it did not own. YouTube will use an ID File created for each copyrighted video and store it in its database, where new videos will be checked to determine whether they are unauthorized.

One downside of YouTube is that it has minimal security measures, which makes it difficult for viewers to protect sensitive videos. In addition, comments on videos can become a hotbed for spammers. These spammers can leave irrelevant and virus-filled comments, which can distract viewers from the main purpose of the video and damage your brand reputation. YouTube also offers limited branding options, with only the ability to change the video player and channel cover image.

It's a social network

YouTube is the second-largest search engine on the internet behind Google. Its popularity has increased steadily over the past two years and is expected to continue growing. According to App Annie, it became the top app in the first quarter of 2019. Users can subscribe to YouTube Premium, which removes advertisements from all videos, or subscribe to a specific channel and get special perks such as automatic display of ads and full screen reading options.

Although it has many benefits, YouTube is often overlooked as a social network. In fact, the site has outgrown its initial use as a video dating website and has since evolved into a social network with a large, engaged audience. If you want to reach this audience, you need to have some basic marketing skills. After all, how else can you promote your business if it has no content? Here are some tips for using YouTube in your social media marketing strategy:

Strategy

Social media is free space, and it's an effective way to increase your brand recognition and site ranking. The more contacts you have, the more likely your video will get views. More likes and comments will raise your post's attractiveness to search engines. That means more viewers for your business! If you are a YouTube star, becoming a social network could be your key to success. If you can get your video to go viral, it will be a huge asset.

YouTube has made some inroads into the social networking space with a new product called YouTube Community. The new product allows creators to engage their audience on YouTube through video content, sharing animated GIFs, and more. Subscribed users will be able to see these posts via their subscription feed and can opt to receive notifications. However, these new features haven't taken off in the video platform, and have been dropped.

The other major advantage of YouTube is its interactivity with other users. The site's community features allow creators with 1,000 subscribers and higher to post on the site like they would on other social media platforms. These features enable users to interact on the site by commenting, liking, and sharing content. YouTube also includes video calling, which allows users to talk to other people using the website. Unlike Facebook and Twitter, YouTube is a social network, but the interaction is not instantaneous.

It's a search engine

YouTube is one of the most popular search engines, but if you think about it in terms of content, you might be surprised to know that it serves videos and does not return web pages or documents. In fact, most people use web search engines to find videos and not websites. That said, there are ways to use YouTube for search engine optimization. Read on for some of the most common methods. After all, it is a powerful tool for web marketers, and it is definitely worth looking into.

Website

SEO stands for search engine optimization, and it is the process of optimizing your website to get higher rankings in the search engines. Since search is the gatekeeper of content, optimizing your content is essential for attracting traffic and building a following. Youtube SEO involves optimizing your channel and its videos for search, playlists, metadata, and descriptions. Learning how to optimize your content for search is crucial for monetization and success on Youtube.

A YouTube search algorithm looks for quality content and factors the watch time of the video and other criteria. In order to get high quality videos, YouTube prioritizes content from credible and authoritative sources. Other signals are popularity and freshness. In other words, it looks at the history of the viewer and what they're most likely to watch. These factors can help you rank your videos higher in YouTube. While the YouTube algorithm uses a variety of signals to decide on which videos are best for you, it doesn't necessarily use these signals to rank you higher or lower.

One of the biggest advantages of YouTube is that it sorts videos based on how much engagement they've received from other users. If the video has a description or title that matches your search query, it will be higher in the results than if it isn't. Moreover, YouTube's search engine algorithm looks at how long people have watched the video and how many times they've skipped to the timestamp.

It's a video-sharing website

Despite the name, YouTube is more than a video-sharing website. It is a powerful tool for online video production, with more than two billion monthly active users and 79% of internet users having a YouTube account. Anyone can upload, view, and share videos on the website, and the service is free to use. If you're interested in making your own videos, check out the desktop site or one of the apps to get started.

YouTube has over a billion views a day. The video-sharing website is a competitor to Hulu, a subscription service from Google. The company launched a partner program in May 2007 but faced some backlash over its copyright policy. In 2011, it took down videos by the popular band The Verve, claiming that the music samples included in the videos were not theirs. It is now unclear what caused this controversy.

Streaming

Another popular video-sharing website is Metacafe. The website was once comparable to other video streaming services but has changed its business model since the arrival of YouTube. Metacafe, too, has a rewards program, and it shares revenues with its content creators. The payment structure is based on views, with popular videos receiving $5 per thousand views. However, creators should note that videos cannot be uploaded instantly to Metacafe, since its users can only download one video at a time.

YouTube is owned by Alphabet and has a strong machine-learning platform that generates recommendations for consumers. It supports 8K video and HDR video, and it supports most major formats. YouTube is also home to a variety of advertising options and offers several ways to monetize your videos. However, the majority of these options require a high level of technical knowledge. The website is also a popular social networking site and has many ways to promote your content.

YouTube has had a remarkable social impact. It has changed the way we live, influenced popular culture and the internet, and even created multi-millionaires. However, YouTube has also been criticized for facilitating misinformation, censorship, and endangering children's safety. But despite its immense potential for influence, the site is still growing. So, it's time to take YouTube seriously. If you're looking for a way to make your videos more engaging, consider making them video content.

Youtube Bio

YouTube , an American online video-sharing and social networking platform with its headquarters in San Bruno (California), is the YouTube .YouTube is home to more than one million monthly users[7, 8] and more than 500 hours per minute of video content.

The YouTube Premium paid subscription is available to watch content without ads. 

 You can also find movie trailers, teasers or live streams on YouTube. This includes collaborations between YouTubers with corporate sponsors. Discovery has also expanded its corporate YouTube channels in order to reach a wider audience.

YouTube has had a remarkable social impact. It has influenced popular culture and internet trends and created multimillionaire celebrities. It also allows for censorship and can endanger child safety and well-being.

Growth

[14] Hurley had studied design at the Indiana University of Pennsylvania, and Chen and Karim studied computer science together at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.[15]

According to a common story in the media, Hurley was not present at the party and Chen denied that it had occurred. However, Chen said that they developed the idea for YouTube in 2005 after having difficulty sharing videos from a dinner party at Chen’s apartment in San Francisco[16]

History

The company raised money from many investors between November 2005 and April 2006. Sequoia Capital was the largest investor, with $8 million going to Artis Capital Management and $11.5 million to Sequoia Capital. [14][21] Its first headquarters were located above a pizzeria/Japanese restaurant. [22] YouTube activated www.youtube.com in February 2005. [23] April 23rd 2005 saw the upload of the first video. The video, entitled "Me at the Zoo", shows Jawed Karim, cofounder of the company. The company launched a public beta in May. By November, a Nike commercial featuring Ronaldinho had reached one million views. The official launch of the site took place on December 15, 2005. By that time, it was receiving over 8 million visits per day. [28][29]

YouTube wasn't the first video-sharing website on the Internet, contrary to popular belief. However, that site was a side project of College Humor and didn't grow much. [31] YouTube's early viral videos like "Lazy Sunday" helped to establish it as a significant website. [32] YouTube uploaded the skit unofficially, attracting more than 5 million views in total by February 2006.

Universal Tube subsequently changed its website towww.utubeonline.com.[37][38]

Broadcast

Google announced on October 9, 2006 that it had purchased YouTube for $1.65 Billion in Google stock. [39][40] Google acquired Vimeo on November 13, 2006. IAC, now the owner of Vimeo, concentrated its efforts to support content creators and differentiate itself from YouTube. 

YouTube logo, 2015 to 2017

The company saw rapid growth. According to The Daily Telegraph, YouTube used more bandwidth in 2007 than the whole Internet did in 2000. According to comScore, the company held a market share of 43% and had more than 14 million views of videos by 2010. The company also simplified its interface to increase user time. But, the majority of these views were from a small number of videos. According to one software engineer, 30% of videos account for 99% of all views. The company also changed its interface that year and introduced a darker red logo. [50][51] This number would rise to 300 hours by November 2014. [53][54]

The company went through organizational changes during this period. YouTube opened a new office in San Bruno (California) in October 2006. [55] Hurley stated that he would step down as chief executive officer at YouTube in order to serve an advisory role. Salar Kamangar will take over as the company's head in October 2010. [56]

YouTube and Vevo partnered in December 2009. [57] Lady Gaga's "Bad Romance", which was first to reach 200,000,000 views on May 9, 2010, became YouTube's most-viewed video. [58]

CEO

 YouTube's San Bruno headquarters expanded in January 2016 with the purchase of an office park at $215 million. It covers 51,468 sqm (554,000 sqft) and can accommodate up to 2,800 people. YouTube launched its "polymer” redesign of its user interfaces in August 2017. It uses Material Design language as its default.

 YouTube launched "Music Key" in 2014. This subscription service combined YouTube's ad-free streaming music with Google Play Music. YouTube Red was a premium premium streaming service that allowed you to stream all YouTube content ad-free. It succeeded the Music Key service from the previous year. This service also included original videos, premium series and films by YouTube personalities. Background playback of content on mobile phones is also available. This stream service is a third app that allows users to stream and discover the music content on YouTube. [68][69][70]

YouTube also tried to make products that appealed to specific audiences.  It has a simplified user interface and curated channels with age-appropriate content. There are also parental control options. YouTube also launched YouTube Gaming in 2015. This vertical was a platform for live streaming and video gaming and is competing with Amazon.com's Twitch. [72]

Conflict

"We continue to work closely together with governments and network operators around globe to minimize the stress on the system during this unprecedented circumstance. "[77]

The FTC also fined YouTube $170 million for collecting personal data from children under 13.

In 2018, and 2019, YouTube did not have an app for Amazon Fire devices for more than a year. Roku pulled the YouTube TV app out of its streaming store in 2020 after they were unable to come to an agreement.

YouTube dislike count removal controversy (2021-present)

YouTube took down public display of dislikes on videos in November 2021 after testing it earlier in 2021. Some users thought the move was a way to discourage bullying, while others thought hiding dislikes would make viewers more likely to spot clickbait and unhelpful videos. Some speculated that YouTube removed dislikes because of YouTuberewind 2018. He believed that it was crucial for social media users to be able to spot bad content. If the platform interferes with the process, it breaks down. The platform will then decline. The platform then declines. "[92]

Features

Video technology

YouTube uses primarily the VP9, H.264/MPEG-4 AVC codecs and Dynamic Adaptive Streaming Over HTTP protocol.[94]

For those with slow Internet speeds or areas where compatibility is a concern, the platform can offer videos at an optionally lower resolution starting at 144p. This will allow for smoother playback and preserve limited cellular data plans. The platform can serve videos at optionally lower resolution levels starting at 144p for smoother playback in areas and countries with limited Internet speeds a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_speed" title="Internet speed">Internet speeds, improving compatibility as well as the preservation of limited cellular a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Data_plan" title="Data plan">data plans/a>.

From 2008 to 2017, users were able to add annotations to their videos. These included hyperlinks and pop-up text messages. This allowed for interactive video. YouTube introduced standardized widgets intended to replace annotations in a cross-platform manner, including "end screens" (a customizable array of thumbnails for specified videos displayed near the end of the video).[103][104][105]

Upload

(URL), which can contain letters and digits as well as an underscore (_) and a dash (-).[116.

YouTube introduced Premiere in 2018. This feature displays a notification to users indicating when the video will become available, similar to a live stream, but with a prerecorded version. 

Formats and quality

YouTube initially offered videos in one quality level. It displayed videos at 320x240 pixels using the Sorenson Spark codec. [118][119] With mono MP3 audio, this mode increased the resolution to 480x360 pixels.[122] December 2008 saw the addition of 720p HD support.  YouTube also began to use H.264/MPEG-4 AVC video compression as its default format. YouTube launched 4K video support in July 2010. 2020 color space.

 Mobile apps allow users to choose from "Auto", which adjusts the resolution based upon the internet connection, and "High Picture Quality", which prioritizes playing high-quality videos. [134] Desktop users can choose between "Auto" or a specific resolution.

3d

YouTube has been allowing viewers to view 3D videos since 2009. [136] YouTube started natively supporting 360 degree video in 2015. Since April 2016, it allowed live streaming 360deg video, and both normal and 360deg video at up to 1440p, and since November 2016 both at up to 4K (2160p) resolution.[137][138][139] Citing the limited number of users who watched more than 90-degrees, it began supporting an alternative stereoscopic video format known as VR180 which it said was easier to produce,[140] which allows users to watch any video using virtual reality headsets.[141]

YouTube temporarily reduced the quality of its videos due to an increase in viewers during the COVID-19 pandemic. [142][143] YouTube created its own chip called Argos to encode higher resolution videos for 2021.

 One example of such partnership was with Universal Music Group, which allowed the uploader to improve the quality of videos uploaded in poor quality. [145]

Live streaming

Live streaming via mobile was first made available to verified users who had at least 1,000 subscribers in May 2013. In August 2013, the limit was reduced to 100 subscribers [151].

Groups

YouTube released a beta version of Community on September 13, 2016. This social media-based feature allows users to upload text, images, and live videos in a separate Community tab. [156] These YouTubers were Vlogbrothers and AsapScience as well as Lilly Singh and The Game Theorists. [157] [non-primary source required]

 The threshold was gradually lowered [when?]. ], from 10,000 subscribers to 1500 subscribers, to 1000 subscribers,[158][non-primary source needed] to 500 subscribers. [159]

Channels that the community tab becomes enabled for, get their channel discussions (the name before March 2013 "One channel layout" redesign finalization: "channel comments") permanently erased, instead of co-existing or migrating.[160][non-primary source needed]

Comment system

Also see Critique of Google SS YouTube user Comments

Many videos allow users to comment, and this has attracted attention because of the bad aspects both their content and form. in 2006 praised for "community" and "collaboration on a scale not seen before". He also said that YouTube "harnesses both the stupidity and wisdom of crowds". YouTube comments can make you feel sad for humanity's future just for the spelling, not to mention the insanity and naked hatred. [161] In 2009, The Guardian described YouTube comments as "[162]

Juvenile, aggressive and misspelled , homophobic. YouTube comments can range from screaming at the video's contents to giving a detailed description, followed by a LOL. These comments are full of ignorant, infantile debate, and wit.

Daily Telegraph

The Daily Telegraph reported in September 2008 that YouTube was "notorious for some of the most confrontational, ill-formed, and unstructured comment exchanges on the internet". YouTube Comment Snob is a software that blocks rude, illiterate posts. [163] The Huffington Post reported in April 2012 that YouTube comments that are offensive, stupid or crass to "vast majority of people" is not difficult. [164]

Google implemented a comment system that was based on Google+ on November 6, 2013. This required YouTube users to create a Google+ account in order to comment on videos. Jawed Karim, YouTube founder, posted the question: "Why the fuck do you need a Google+ account to comment on videos?" To express his disapproval of the change, Jawed Karim posted it to his YouTube channel. [168] He also stated that discussion forums all over the Internet are already full of outrage against the new comment system. Melvin continues the article by saying [171]

Although user complaints may be justified, the idea of modernizing the system isn’t so bad. Consider the crude, misogynistic or racially-charged mudslinging which has occurred over the past eight years on YouTube. There is no discernible moderation. Isn’t it worth making an effort to stop unidentified libelers?

In a blog post on July 27, 2015 Google announced that it would remove the requirement for users to create a Google+ account in order to leave comments on YouTube. YouTube then announced a trial program that allows creators to decide whether they approve, hide, or report comments on videos. It is based on an algorithm that detects offensive comments. [173] Creators can also decide to delete or keep comments that contain links or hashtags to stop spam. They may also allow others to moderate their comments. [174]

YouTube will launch a new feature in December 2020 to warn users if they make comments that may be offensive to other users. "[175][176]

Accessibility to content

YouTube allows users to view their videos on other websites. YouTube's video identifier is a 11-character string. There are 64 possible characters in each position. This allows for a theoretical maximum of 64 11, or approximately 73.8 quintillion (73.8 trillion billion) unique ids.

 The video owner can disable embedding, rating, commenting, and response posting. YouTube doesn't usually provide a link to download its videos.

YouTube announced in February 2009 that it was offering a test service which allowed some partners to offer video downloading for free or a fee through Google Checkout. [183] Google sent cease-and-desist letters in June 2012 to several websites that offer online downloading and conversion of videos. Zamzar took down the ability to download YouTube videos. [185] While users retain copyright to their work under the standard YouTube License[186], they have the option of granting certain usage rights under any other public copyright license.

It is possible to choose a Creative Commons default license, which allows other users to reuse or remix the material. [187]

Platforms

Modern smartphones can access YouTube videos through either an app or an optimized website.  YouTube Mobile does not have all its videos. [189]

Since June 2007, YouTube's videos have been available for viewing on a range of title="Apple Inc.">Apple products. It took many months to transcode YouTube's video into Apple's preferred video format, H.264. YouTube videos are available on Apple TV, iPod Touch, and iPhone. [190]

The site's mobile version was relaunched using HTML5 in July 2010. It does not require Adobe Flash Player, and is optimized for touch screen control. [191] A mobile version of the site is also available for Android as an app. [192][193]

YouTube launched its first iPhone app in September 2012. YouTube was the third most used app between April 2013 and June 2013. According to GlobalWebIndex. [195]

TiVo update in July 2008 enabled the system to search for and play YouTube videos. [196]

YouTube launched YouTube for TV in January 2009.

Google released an official app for Wii that allows users to view YouTube videos directly from their Wii channel. [201]

Localization and international

Google CEO Eric Schmidt was in Paris on June 19, 2007 to launch the new system of localization. [207] The website's interface is now available in localized versions in 104 countries and one territory (Hong Kong), as well as a worldwide version. [208]

Show countries with YouTube localization

Based on the IP address, the YouTube interface will suggest which version to choose.  In October 2012, YouTube launched a local version in Turkey with the domain youtube.com.tr. After a failed agreement on a licensing contract, the major record companies removed videos from YouTube. 

Videos

These terms prohibit the use of automated processes to increase view counts. YouTube fixed the notorious behavior that caused a video's views to freeze at "301", later "301+", until it was verified. This prevents any view count fraud. 

YouTube Studio still has the exact count. [267]

YouTube announced that it will begin hiding dislike scores on videos. This is after having tested the change in March 2021. YouTube stated that the company made this decision after conducting experiments to determine that YouTube's smaller creators were more susceptible to harassment and dislike brigade. Creators will still be able to see the number of likes and dislikes in the YouTube Studio dashboard tool, according to YouTube.[268][269][270]

Infringment Concerns

Main article: YouTube copyright issues

Additional information: Copyright holders

Copyright holders are responsible for issuing a DMCA takedown note in accordance with the Online Copyright Infringement Limitation Act.  They claim that YouTube did not do enough to stop the uploading of copied material from 2007 to 2009. [274][275][276]

In August 2008, a US court ruled in title="Lenz V. Universal Music Corp.">Lenz, v. Universal Music Corp. states that copyright holders can't order the deletion of an online file without first determining if the posting is fair use of the material. YouTube's owner, Google, announced in November 2015 that it would cover legal costs in certain cases where fair use defenses are applicable. [278]

Smith claimed Summit Entertainment had wrongfully used copyright takedown notices to YouTube. [279] Smith asserted seven causes, of which four were in Smith's favor. [280]

This applies even if the uploader files a DMCA counternotice. [283][284] Creators had their videos removed or demonetized by 2019, after Content ID detected copyrighted music in a longer video. There were different enforcement levels depending on the record labels. Experts pointed out that not all of these clips were suitable for fair use. [286]

2007

Main article: Content ID.

YouTube started trials in June 2007 of a system that automatically detects uploaded videos that violate copyright. Eric Schmidt, Google's CEO, viewed this system as essential for the resolution of lawsuits like the Viacom one. Viacom claimed that YouTube made money from videos it didn't have the rights to distribute. [287] The system, which was initially called "Video Identification"[288][289] and later became known as Content ID,[290] creates an ID File for copyrighted audio and video material, and stores it in a database. The system checks the uploaded video against the database and flags it as a violation of copyright if it matches.

Content ID

YouTube had already invested millions in this technology by 2010. [289]

YouTube defined Content ID in 2011 as "very accurate" when it comes to finding uploads similar to reference files. [291]

In 2012, Content ID was responsible for more than a third of all monetized views to YouTube. [292]

In 2009, an independent test uploaded multiple versions of the song to YouTube. It found that the system was not infallible and was "surprisingly resilient" in detecting copyright violations in audio tracks. [293] Some cases have been controversial due to Content ID's ability to automatically remove material. However, the videos were not checked for fair use by humans. YouTube users can fill out a dispute form if they disagree with Content ID's decision. [295]

Before 2016, videos weren't monetized until the dispute had been resolved. Videos are still being monetized even though the dispute is ongoing. The money goes to the winner of the dispute. [296] If the uploader wishes to monetize again the video, they can remove the disputed audio from the "Video Manager". YouTube has stated that Content ID's effectiveness was one of the main reasons YouTube changed its rules in December 2010, allowing some users to upload unlimited-length videos. [298]

Moderation and offensive content

Also see Criticism by Google SS YouTube and Censorship By Google SS YouTube

YouTube has established a set of community guidelines to help reduce abuse of its features. YouTube's "Community Guidelines" prohibit the upload of videos that contain defamation, pornography and encourage criminal conduct. YouTube's "Community Guidelines" prohibit the uploading of pornography, defamation, and other explicit material. YouTube depends on users to flag inappropriate content. A YouTube employee will review flagged videos to determine if it violates its guidelines. YouTube's operations have been criticised despite the guidelines. [300]

 A former content moderator filed a class action suit in September 2020. She claimed that she had developed post-traumatic stress disorder during her 18-month tenure. According to the former content moderator, she was often made to watch more than YouTube allowed for graphic content. According to the lawsuit, YouTube's contractors provided little or no support for its moderator's mental well-being, required prospective employees to sign NDAs before showing them examples of content that they might see while reviewing it, and banned any mention of trauma from its internal forums. YouTube rejected requests for very graphic content to be reduced in size, blurred or made monochrome according to the recommendations of the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children. [304][305][306]

Policy

YouTube has developed a policy to address technical manipulations of videos to limit misinformation and fake news. [307]

Controversial content includes material related to Holocaust denial or the Hillsborough disaster in which 96 Liverpool football fans were killed in 1989. [308][309] The Culture and Media Committee of the House of Commons of the United Kingdom declared in July 2008 that YouTube's video policing system was not satisfactory. It also stated that they believe that proactive review of user-generated content should be a standard practice. YouTube replied by saying:

We have very strict guidelines about what is allowed. Anyone who sees inappropriate content can report it to our 24/7 review team to have it promptly dealt with. To make it as simple as possible, we educate our community about the rules and provide a link to every YouTube page. We believe this is the best way to ensure that only a small number of videos are removed from our site due to the sheer volume of content.

U.S. Anthony Weiner, a congressman from the United States, urged YouTube to remove videos of Anwar al-Awlaki.

The infobox was filled with Wikipedia and Encyclopaedia Britannica content to help users avoid misinformation propagation and preserve freedom of speech. 

In August 2019, five prominent content creators, whose channels were based LGBTQ+ material, filed a federal suit against YouTube alleging that YouTube's algorithms deprive their channels of discovery and negatively impact their revenue. The plaintiffs claimed that YouTube's algorithms discourage content with terms like "lesbian" and "gay" because they can't find them. This could impact their revenue.

YouTube can be used to promote conspiracy theories or far-right content

YouTube's algorithm for promoting conspiracy theories, falsehoods, and incendiary fringe speech has been criticised. [317][318][319] A Wall Street Journal investigation found that YouTube's recommendations can lead users to videos featuring conspiracy theories, partisan views, and misleading videos even though they have not shown an interest in such content. YouTube will recommend videos with extreme viewpoints that users may have shown a political bias. YouTube's search algorithm often highlights conspiracy theories and hoaxes when users search for scientific or political terms. YouTube's algorithm was changed to give more prominence to mainstream media sources after YouTube became controversial for giving top billing videos that promote conspiracy theories and falsehoods during the 2017 Las Vegas shooting. [317][322][323][324] YouTube promoted fringe content on breaking news in 2018, giving prominence to conspiracy videos about Anthony Bourdain’s death. [325]

It was discovered that YouTube had been placing advertisements on videos that were extremist in 2017, including those by rape apologists and anti-Semites. YouTube also apologized for the practice and stated that it would allow firms more control over where ads are placed. [326]

Alex Jones, a right-wing conspiracy theorist, was well-known on YouTube. YouTube was criticised in 2018 for removing a Media Matters video that contained offensive statements by Jones. The video stated that YouTube violated its policies regarding harassment and bullying. YouTube removed Alex Jones' YouTube channel on August 6, 2018 after a content violation. [329]

University of North Carolina

Zeynep Turekci, a University of North Carolina professor, has called YouTube "The Great Radicalizer" and said that YouTube "may be one of most powerful radicalizing tools of the 21st Century." YouTube was described by Jonathan Albright, the Tow Center for Digital Journalism at Columbia University, as a "conspiracy environment". [319][331]

YouTube announced in January 2019 that it had implemented a new policy in the United States that would prohibit YouTube from recommending videos that contain "content that could misinform users or cause harm." YouTube gave examples such as miracle cures and flat earth theories. YouTube engineering initially rejected attempts to block borderline extremist videos being recommended and to track their popularity. This was because it could hinder viewer engagement. [333] The site started implementing measures aimed at "raising authoritative content, reducing borderline material and harmful misinformation" in late 2019. "[334]

A July 2019 study using 10 YouTube searches with the Tor Browser on climate and climate change revealed that the majority of YouTube videos had views that were contrary to the scientific consensus about climate change.

[337] A BBC investigation into YouTube searches in ten languages found that YouTube's algorithm encouraged health misinformation.

Numerous channels in the Philippines such as "Showbiz Fanaticz", "Robin Sweet Showbiz" and "PH Breaking News," with at least 100,000 subscribers each, were found to have spread misinformation about political figures ahead 2022 Philippine election[338]

You can use among white supremacists

YouTube took steps before 2019 to remove certain videos and channels that were related to supremacist material. However, YouTube does not have any site-wide policies against hate Speech.

YouTube and other social media sites, such as Facebook and Twitter, that allow user-submitted content were criticised for failing to control hate speech and facilitating its spread. [340][341] YouTube's chief product officer Neal Mohan stated that general hate speech, unlike videos like those made by ISIS, is more difficult to identify and manage through computer-aided algorithms. [342]

YouTube joined an initiative led by France and New Zealand with other countries and tech companies in May 2019 to develop tools to be used to block online hate speech and to develop regulations, to be implemented at the national level, to be levied against technology firms that failed to take steps to remove such speech, though the United States declined to participate.[343][344] Subsequently, on June 5, 2019, YouTube announced a major change to its terms of service, "specifically prohibiting videos alleging that a group is superior in order to justify discrimination, segregation or exclusion based on qualities like age, gender, race, caste, religion, sexual orientation or veteran status." YouTube identified specific examples such as videos that promote or glorify Nazi ideology. This is discriminatory. YouTube stated that it would remove videos that "promote or glorify Nazi ideology, which is inherently discriminatory". "[339][345]

YouTube banned several YouTube channels that were associated with white supremacy in June 2020. These channels included Stefan Molyneux and David Duke. YouTube claimed these channels violated their hate speech policies. This ban was announced by Reddit on June 2020.

Handling the COVID-19 pandemic, and other misinformation

YouTube removed all videos that link 5G to the coronavirus after misinformation was posted via YouTube about the COVID-19 pandemic. This led to multiple 5G towers being set on fire in the United Kingdom. [347]

YouTube extended this policy in September 2021 to cover videos disseminating misinformation related to any vaccine, including those long approved against measles or Hepatitis B, that had received approval from local health authorities or the World Health Organization.[348][349] The platform removed the accounts of anti-vaccine campaigners such as title="Robert F. Kennedy Jr.">Robert F. Kennedy Jr., and Joseph Mercola at the time. [349] Two accounts that were linked to RT Deutsch (the German channel of the Russian RT Network) were also removed for violating YouTube's policies. [348]

Google, YouTube and other media outlets implemented policies in October 2021 to prevent revenue or monetization to content creators or advertisers that promote climate change denial. This "includes content that refers to climate change as a hoax, a scam, or claims that long-term trends show that the global climate is warming. Also, claims that either human activity or greenhouse gas emissions contribute to climate changes. "[350]

Safety and well-being for children

Also see FamilyOFive and Fantastic Adventures scamElsagate.

In 2017, YouTube reported a significant rise in videos about children. This was due to parents vlogging their families' activities and content creators shifting away from content that was often criticized or demonetized into family friendly material. YouTube reported in 2017 that the number of videos about family vloggers increased by 90%. However, YouTube faced several issues related to child safety. The FamilyOFive channel featured their children playing "pranks". Two of their children were taken from their custody after their videos were deleted. [353][354][355][356] In 2019, a similar case occurred when the owners of Fantastic Adventures were accused of sexually abusing their adopted children. [353][354][355][356] A similar case occurred in 2019 when the owners of Fantastic Adventures were accused of abusing her adopted children.

Millions

YouTube was later criticized for showing inappropriate videos targeting children. Many of these videos were posted on YouTube Kids, and attracted millions upon millions of viewers. Elsagate was first coined online and used by many news outlets to refer the controversy. YouTube announced on November 11th 2017 that it would strengthen site security in order to protect children against inappropriate content. YouTube began to delete all videos and channels that used inappropriate family-friendly characters later in the month. YouTube's safety was a larger concern. The company also deleted channels showing children engaging in dangerous or inappropriate activities under the supervision of adults. Toy Freaks was a YouTube channel that had over 8.5 million subscribers and featured a father and two daughters in bizarre and disturbing situations. [362][363][364][365][366] According to analytics specialist SocialBlade, it earned up to PS8.7 million annually prior to its deletion. [367]

YouTube allows anonymity to determine who uploaded the videos, even if they appear to be targeted at children. YouTube's system allows for anonymity of who uploads videos, even if they appear to be aimed at children. Cocomelon, which produced animated videos for children, was a concern. It was the most popular kid-friendly channel on YouTube, generating an average of US$10 million per month in ad revenues. Ownership of Cocomelon was unclear outside of its ties to "Treasure Studio", itself an unknown entity, raising questions as to the channel's purpose,[368][369][370] but Bloomberg News had been able to confirm and interview the small team of American owners in February 2020 regarding "Cocomelon", who stated their goal for the channel was to simply entertain children, wanting to keep to themselves to avoid attention from outside investors. Because of their anonymity, it raises concerns about the channel's purpose. [372] It is difficult to identify the person behind these channels, according to Josh Golin, Campaign for a Commercial-Free Childhood. Content creators who make kid-friendly videos find it difficult to compete against larger channels such as ChuChu TV.

YouTube banned in January 2019 videos that contained "challenges to encourage acts that have an intrinsic risk of severe bodily harm" (such Tide Pod Challenge), and videos that feature pranks that make victims feel they are in danger or cause emotional distress. [373]

Sexualization of children and sexual pedophilia

Also see Elsagate

These videos showed innocent content like children performing gymnastics or playing with toys. Predators found the videos via private YouTube playlists and typing in Russian keywords. [375]

Due to the controversy surrounding "Elsagate", major advertisers who had run ads against such videos, stopped spending on YouTube. [361][377] This included taking off clothing, adopting sexual poses and touching other children in inappropriate ways. [378]

All of that user’s recommended content will only feature these types of videos. Many of these videos featured comments by sexual predators, with timestamps showing when the children were in degrading positions. Some videos had comments from sexual predators.  A spokesperson stated that YouTube prohibits comments and any content that could endanger minors. We have more work ahead of us, and we are working to catch abusers faster. "[380][381] In spite of these measures, AT&T and Disney pulled all their ads from YouTube. [379][382]

AT&T and Disney

However, the channel will take responsibility for moderating comments.  YouTube claimed that it was working on a better way to remove comments from other channels that match the style of child predators.

Another attempt to flag videos containing the string "CP", an abbreviation for child pornography, resulted in prominent false positives involving videos that used the same abbreviation. This included videos about the mobile game Pokemon Go, which uses "CP" to abbreviate the statistic "Combat Power"), as well as Club Penguin. YouTube later apologized and restored the videos. YouTube said they don't take action on comments that contain child predator activity, but only those they flagged. [387]

The New York Times reported that researchers found that children who had watched erotic videos were more likely to recommend videos of them to their friends. [388] Senator Josh Hawley announced plans to introduce federal legislation banning YouTube and other video-sharing sites from recommending videos featuring minors. This would exclude videos produced professionally, such as those of talent shows or televised performances. YouTube suggested that they could remove all videos featuring children from YouTube's main YouTube site. They would then transfer them to YouTube Kids, where they would have greater control over the recommendation system and other major changes to the autoplay and recommended feature systems. [390]

April Fools

Also see List April Fools Day Jokes

YouTube hosted an April Fools joke on its site every April from 2008 to 2016. [393] YouTube temporarily introduced a "TEXTp mode" in 2010 that converted video imagery into ASCII letters.

The site celebrated its 100th anniversary the next year with a variety of silent, early 1900s-style, sepia-toned films. [395] It showed a way to order YouTube videos for home delivery on DVD. [396]

The winning video will be the only one. The video featured several YouTube stars, such as Antoine Dodson

Services

YouTube Community

YouTube launched its own social networking platform, YouTube Community, in September 2016.

Logo for YouTube Go

YouTubeGo is an app that makes YouTube more accessible on mobile devices in emerging market. It allows users to download videos and share them with others. It allows users to preview and share videos downloaded through Bluetooth.

YouTube first announced the project at an Indian event in September 2016. [404] The app is available to around 60% of the world's population.[407][408]

YouTube Kids

Main article: YouTube Kids

YouTube Kids, an American children's video platform developed by YouTube (a subsidiary of Google). This app offers a child-friendly version of the service, which includes curated content selections, parental control features and filtering out inappropriate videos for children under 13 years old. The app was first released as an Android and iOS mobile application on February 15, 2015. The app was available in 69 countries including Hong Kong, Macau, and one provincial as of September 2019. 

YouTube named Lyor Cohen (co-founder of 300 Entertainment, former executive at Warner Music Group), the Global Head for Music on September 28, 2016. [410]

Cohen started hinting at YouTube's possible launch of a subscription-based music streaming service in early 2018. This would be a competitor to Apple Music and Spotify. [411]

YouTube Premium

Main article: YouTube Premium

A further million can sign up for a free trial. [421] YouTube Originals' first season had received 250 million views as of June 2017. [422]

YouTube Shorts

Main article: YouTube Videos

A YouTube Short example video showing Crew Dragon Endeavour docking at the International Space Station

YouTube announced in September 2020 that it would launch a beta version for a platform with 15-second videos similar to TikTok. YouTube Shorts is the name of the beta version. [423][424] Videos can now be as long as one minute. [425]  [425] HTML427

YouTube Stories

YouTube began testing a new feature in 2018 called "YouTube Reels". [428] This feature is almost identical to Snapchat Stories and Snapchat Stories. YouTube later changed the name of the feature to "YouTube Stories". YouTube later renamed the feature "YouTube Stories".

This program included a comment searching feature that was available under /comment_search in October 2009. [432]

YouTube TV

Main article: YouTube TV

It is an over the top MVPD subscription service. The price for US customers would be US$65 per monthly. Initially launching in five major markets (New York City, Los Angeles, Chicago, Philadelphia and San Francisco) on April 5, 2017,[434][435] the service offers live streams of programming from the five major broadcast networks (ABC, CBS, The CW, Fox and NBC), as well as approximately 40 cable channels owned by the corporate parents of those networks, The Walt Disney Company, CBS Corporation, 21st Century Fox, NBCUniversal and Turner Broadcasting System (including among others Bravo, USA Network, Syfy, Disney Channel, CNN, Cartoon Network, title="E! ">E!, Fox Sports 1, Freeform FX, ESPN and FX. For an additional fee, subscribers can get Showtime and Fox Soccer Plus. They also have access to YouTube Premium original content. [436][437]

Social impact

(438) as well as large production companies (439). Indie creators have created a large following of followers with little effort and cost. Radio promotion and mass retail were difficult. [438] During this time, YouTube invited old media stars to join the site. This allowed them to build a large following and a perceived audience size that was greater than what is possible on television. [439] YouTube's "Partner Program," which shares revenue, made it possible for video producers to make a living. Its top five hundred partners earned more than $100,000 per year[440] and its ten highest earning channels were worth between $2.5 million and $12 million[441]. In 2012, CMU's business editor described YouTube as "a free-to use... promotional platform to promote the music labels." Katheryn Thayer, a Forbes 2013 business editor, stated that digital-era artists must have high quality work and elicit responses on YouTube and other social media. [443] The videos of 2.5% of artists classified as "mega", mainstream, and "mid-sized" received 90.3% in relevant views on YouTube. [444]

Accepting YouTube

Jordan Hoffner, 68th Annual Peabody Awards 

Ted curator Chris Anderson observed that face-to face communication like that offered by online videos has been "fine-tuned over millions of years of evolution" and stated that "what Gutenberg did to write, online video can now do for facial-to-face communications." " [446] Anderson stated that online video could accelerate scientific progress and that contributors to video may soon launch the "biggest learning cycle in human history." "[446] Khan Academy, for instance, grew out of YouTube tutoring sessions for Salman Khan's cousin to become what Forbes' Michael Noer called the "largest school in the world" with technology poised for disruption in how people learn. YouTube won a 2008 George Foster Peabody Award. [447] This contrasts with mainstream TV, where the stars tend to be white. [450] A Pew Research Center study revealed the rise of "visual journalism," where citizen eyewitnesses are able to share in the creation of content. [451] Another conclusion of the study was that YouTube is becoming a popular platform for people to access news. [452]

YouTube has allowed people to engage more directly with government. This was evident in the CNN/YouTube presidential elections (2007), in which ordinary citizens submitted questions via YouTube video to U.S. presidential candidates. A techPresident cofounder stated that YouTube video was changing the political landscape. [453] Philip N. Howard, a sociologist, described the Arab Spring (2010)-2012. He quoted an activist who said that to organize the unrest, he used "Facebook to plan the protests, Twitter for coordination, and YouTube to share the news with the world. "[454] The U.S. Senate passed a resolution condemning Joseph Kony in 2012. Senator Lindsey Graham, the resolution's co-sponsor, said that the video "will do more (Kony’s) demise to all other actions combined." "[455]

The White House hosted a meeting with top YouTube content creators to discuss ways government could better connect to the "YouTube generation." "[456][457]

Channel

Conversely, YouTube has also allowed government to more easily engage with citizens, the White House's official YouTube channel being the seventh top news organization producer on YouTube in 2012[458] and in 2013 a healthcare exchange commissioned Obama impersonator Iman Crosson's YouTube music video spoof to encourage young Americans to enroll in the Affordable Care Act (Obamacare)-compliant health insurance. [459] On February 14, 2014, President Obama met with YouTube's top content creators to promote Obamacare[460] and to discuss ways government can better connect with the "YouTube Generation." "[456] While YouTube's inherent ability for presidents to connect directly with citizens was acknowledged, YouTube content creators were deemed necessary to better deal with YouTube's distracting content. [456]

YouTube videos can have a direct impact on global events. For example, Innocence of Muslims (2012) has sparked protests and anti-American violence worldwide. Chris Anderson, TED curator, described a phenomenon in which people from different places share their skills on YouTube. This encourages innovation and promotes the evolution of that field. Virginia Heffernan, a journalist from The New York Times, stated that such videos can have "surprising consequences" for culture dissemination and the future of classical music. [462]

In 2017, The New York Times Magazine published an article claiming that YouTube was "the new talk radio". [463] YouTube announced in January 2019 that it would make a gradual change to "reducing recommendations for borderline content and content which could misinform users"[464]. Zeynep Tifekci wrote in The New York Times, "(g]iven its billion users, YouTube may well be one of most powerful radicalizing tools of the 21st Century." [465] YouTube's recent changes to its recommendation engine saw Alex Jones (2016 conspiracy theorist) become Fox News (2019). [466]

The Legion of Extraordinary Dancers[467]and the YouTube Symphony Orchestra[468] chose their members based on individual videos. [446][468][469] The Tokyo Times noted the YouTube "We Pray For You" YouTube cyber-collaboration clip as an example of the trend to use crowdsourcing for charitable ends. [470] The antibullying It Gets Better Project grew from a single YouTube video for LGBT teens.[468] YouTube removed 30 videos in May 2018 after the London Metropolitan Police claimed drill music videos glorifying violence were a major contributor to gang violence. [474]

Finances

Google didn't provide any detailed information about YouTube's running expenses prior to 2020. [475] A Forbes magazine article in June 2008 estimated that 2008's revenue would be $200 million. YouTube's ads program generated $3.7 billion in revenue in 2012. [477] YouTube's ads program revenue nearly doubled in 2013. It was estimated at $5.6 billion by eMarketer [477][478], while other estimates were $4.7 billion. [477] YouTube launched a trial program in May 2013 that offered 53 subscription channels at prices between $0.99 and $6.99 per month. [479]

In February 2020, Google published exact YouTube revenue figures as part of Alphabet’s 2019 financial report. Google reports that YouTube made US$15.1 Billion in ad revenue in 2019, compared to US$8.1 Billion in 2017 and US$11.1Billion in 2018. YouTube's revenue accounted for almost 10% of Alphabet's total revenue in 2019. [480][481] Together, these revenues made up approximately 20 million YouTube Premium subscribers. There were also 2 million YouTube TV subscribers. [482]

YouTube generated $19.8 billion in revenues in 2020.

Partnering with corporations

It featured approximately 4,000 shows from over 60 partners. [487] YouTube launched an online rental service for film rentals in January 2010. It is currently only available to US, Canada and UK users. [489][490][needs to update] The service has over 6,000 films. [491]

2017 advertiser boycott

After reports that its ads appeared on extremist videos, the United Kingdom government pulled its advertisements from YouTube in March 2017. The Guardian newspaper and other major U.S. and British brands also suspended advertising on YouTube after their ads appeared near inappropriate content. Google stated that they had "begun an extensive evaluation of our advertising policies" and made a public commitment that they would make changes to give brands more control over the placement of their ads. [492][493] YouTube channel h3h3Productions presented evidence that an article in the Wall Street Journal had created screenshots that showed major brands advertising on an offensive video that featured Johnny Rebel music overlayed on a Chief Keef video. The video had not generated any ad revenues for the uploader.

YouTube announced on April 6th that it would require all channels to undergo a policy review and to have at least 10,000 views in their lifetime before they can join the Partner Program.

YouTuber earnings

It is a program based on AdSense that allows video uploaders to share the revenue generated by advertising on YouTube. YouTube usually takes 45 percent of advertising revenue from videos uploaded to its Partner Program. The uploader receives 55 percent. [498][499]

[500] In 2013, a pre-roll YouTube advertisement (one that appears before the video starts), cost advertisers an average of $7.60 per 1000 YouTube views. [501]

These include videos that contain violence, strong language or sexual content (except when the content is "usually newsworthy and comedic and the creator's intention is to inform and entertain"), [502], and videos whose comments contain inappropriate content.

This includes language, strong violence, sexual content and "controversial and sensitive subjects and events", except when the content is "usually newsworthy, comedic, and the creator's intention is to inform and entertain". YouTube introduced an enhanced notification system in September 2016 to notify users about these violations. DeFranco claimed that the inability to make advertising revenue from such videos was "censorship under a different name". YouTube spokesperson said that the policy was not new but that the service had improved the notification and appeal process to make it easier for creators to be notified. [513][514][515]

[517] YouTube has the right to monetize any video uploaded to the platform as long as the uploader is not part of the YouTube Partner Program.

Copyright owners earn revenue

Further information: SS Copyrighted material

YouTube gives an option for copyright holders to locate and remove their videos or to have them continue running for revenue.[520] In May 2013, Nintendo began enforcing its copyright ownership and claiming the advertising revenue from video creators who posted screenshots of its games.[521] In February 2015, Nintendo agreed to share the revenue with the video creators through the Nintendo Creators Program.[522][523][524] On March 20, 2019, Nintendo announced on Twitter that the company will end the Creators program. [525] [526]

Bans and censorship

Main article: YouTubecensorship

YouTube is now available as of January 2021

A local YouTube version

Accessible

Blocking currently

Blockade Previously

  • It is important to limit public access to content that could spark social or political unrest.
  • Preventing criticism of a leader (e.g. in North Korea), government (e.g. China or its actions (e.g. Morocco, government officials (e.g. Turkey or Libya, or religion (e.g. in Pakistan).
  • Morality-based laws, e.g. Iran.

Copyright and intellectual property laws can sometimes prevent access to certain videos (e.g. in Germany), violations of hate speech, and preventing access to videos judged inappropriate for youth,[528] which is also done by YouTube with the YouTube Kids app and with "restricted mode".[529] Businesses, schools, government agencies, and other private institutions often block social media sites, including YouTube, due to its bandwidth limitations[530][531] and the site's potential for distraction.[527][532]

As of 2018, public access to YouTube is blocked in many countries, including China, North Korea, Iran, Syria, Turkmenistan,[533] Uzbekistan,[534][535] Tajikistan, Eritrea, Sudan and South Sudan. YouTube may block a site for a specific video or a portion of it. In these cases, YouTube will usually agree to limit access to the video to restore service.

[536]

Blocked

  • Morocco blocked YouTube access in May 2007 possibly due to videos criticizing Morocco's occupation.[538]
  • Turkey blocked access between 2008 and 2010 after controversy over videos deemed insulting to Mustafa Kemal Ataturk.[540][541][542][543] During the two and a half-year block of YouTube, the video-sharing website remained the eighth-most-accessed site in Turkey.[544][545] In 2014, Turkey blocked the access for the second time, after "a high-level intelligence leak. "[546][547][548]
  • [550][551] Many Pakistanis circumvented the three-day block by using virtual private network software.[552] In May 2010, following the Everybody Draw Mohammed Day, Pakistan again blocked access to YouTube, citing "growing sacrilegious content".[553]
  • Libya blocked access to YouTube on January 24, 2010. This was due to videos featuring demonstrations in the city Benghazi organized by relatives of detainees who died in Abu Salim prison 1996 and videos of family members Muammar Gadafi at parties. Human Rights Watch criticized the blocking. [558]
  • YouTube stated that the video, which is freely available online, was in compliance with our guidelines. It will remain on YouTube. We have temporarily blocked access to both Egypt and Libya due to the extremely difficult situation in these countries. "[566][567]
  • Russia threatened to ban YouTube following the deletion of two German RT channels in Sept 2021.[568] YouTube announced on March 1 that it would begin to remove content from RT and other Russian-government funded outlets from its platform in Europe.

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