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Many people around the world learn to count by counting their fingers, but do they always do it in exactly the same way? Do they count by tens or units?
When counting money, try folding dollar bills into stacks and placing your thumb under the first bill, pointer finger under the second, middle finger under third and ring finger beneath fourth.
Counting with one's fingers is a common and effective method for representing numbers in many cultures. It helps children, as well as adults, learn about the number system and how to solve arithmetic problems. Furthermore, counting helps people develop an intuitive grasp of abstract magnitude and its relation to concrete cardinal numbers.
When counting your hands, there are different methods of doing so depending on which culture you come from. Europeans generally start with their thumbs while Asians and North Americans typically begin with the index finger.
In the Middle East, people typically begin counting with their little fingers. Additionally, they use a closed fist method of counting where they extend their fingers into a closed fist and count that way.
Chinese people use symbols to represent numbers from six to ten, such as extending their thumbs and pinkies for six, closing their fist or crossing index and middle fingers to signify 10. This method differs from Western counting in that people in China use their fingers instead of numerals;
Ancient Rome also employed a similar system for counting. You can learn more about the various methods people have employed to count in this video from BBC Reel.
Some cultures, such as India, take counting to an even higher level by using the lines between each segment of their fingers to represent numbers. This allows them to count up to 20 with just one hand!
Other groups, such as the Northern Pame people of Mexico, use a symmetrical method for counting on both hands to indicate 6. They extend their fingers in a circle and count from right index finger to left ring finger.
Though most of us are familiar with how to count on our hands, there is still debate as to whether it is beneficial for children to use finger counting as a method of learning math. Some believe it is not enough and children should instead learn other methods for solving problems.
However, research is showing that finger counting can be an effective part of math education. It is essential to note that solely relying on finger counting may prevent children from developing mental math skills and actually make them less efficient at solving mathematical problems.
Comprehension of decimals requires counting by tens, not just individual objects. This requires mastering the concept of conservation of number, which states that an object's number remains constant even when spread out, rearranged, or hidden from view.
One effective way to help children learn to count by tens is through various games and activities. These could range from counting in a circle, to more complex exercises such as using a number line to create an array of numerals.
One game that can be enjoyed by multiple children is to place counters on zero and take turns rolling the dice to move forward along the number line. When they become confident enough without assistance from you as their teacher, you can challenge them to go past 100.
Another engaging activity that children can do together is to chant the numbers from 10 up to 100 in chorus. This involves them clapping above their heads while saying each number aloud. Repeating this several times a day not only gets children comfortable with counting by tens, but it also teaches them how to express this concept on their own.
If the children are not quite ready to begin singing a song, you can count them up in a jig. This will get their bodies moving and keep them engaged with the activity. Once they have mastered this skill, you can introduce number lines and have them use this knowledge to construct their own number sequences.
Once they have mastered basic counting strategies, you can extend this to other activities like playing a skipping game. This is an effective way to engage hard-to-reach learners and help them develop automaticity in their skillsets.
A great resource for this is a skip counting PowerPoint that can be downloaded and used in your lessons. This visual aid gives children an understanding of how to count in tens, making it a useful teaching aid in the classroom.
Counting is a method for keeping track of a collection of objects. This can be accomplished by increasing a counter in some order until it reaches zero, or marking (or displacement) elements so as not to visit them more than once. Counting can also be employed in enumeration - which involves assigning numbers to each element in either finite or infinite sets - by assigning an orderly sequence.
A counting unit can be something physicaly distinct or only defined by its physical distinctness, such as the length of a stick or plastic egg. Children were shown arrays composed of intact objects and ones composed of separated pieces and asked to count how many wholes or pieces there were in each arrangement.
Children presented with arrays containing both wholes and parts generated counts based on some type of common unit, often representing either an identical object or its size.
Children could count sticks that had bundles of 10 and some singles by counting in increments of 10. They could then decompose a bundle of ten into smaller chunks if that proved useful.
When presented with three whole plastic eggs and four halves, a child could count the total number of eggs by tens and then by ones to determine how many wholes were in each set of halves.
Though units weren't always the same, children often had to develop new ways of thinking about them that didn't involve the same types of units as the original ones. This is an entirely normal part of growing up and developing units.
Some children who were able to utilize skip counting to solve problems involving multiplicative situations developed an intentional awareness of the connection between their skip count and the types of units with which they were working. This knowledge is crucial for developing multiplicative understandings, since without it they may continue working with additive strategies when tackling tasks involving composite units.
Calculating with digits is a favorite activity among early elementary school children. There are various methods of doing it, but the most successful will involve an effective combination of methods: counting by rote, counting by pointing and counting by hand. To effectively teach this concept, provide your students with all of the tools and time to work independently.
A straightforward counting system can be implemented using either a box of matches or large piece of paper. The first person to pick up a match should be encouraged to pick up another and the third person rewarded with an appropriately sized prize for their efforts. Most importantly, this exercise is both educational and enjoyable, creating a win-win scenario for all involved. Now the next step is to apply this knowledge in meaningful conversations about day-to-day life.
Mosquitoes are one of the most prevalent pests in America, causing itchy red welts and spreading diseases such as malaria, West Nile virus, and encephalitis.
Antarctica, one of the coldest regions on earth, has virtually no mosquitoes due to its unique oceanic climate that keeps temperatures down and pests at bay.
Antarctica is one of the two places on Earth without mosquitoes due to its harsh climate, which makes it difficult for insect life to flourish.
Antarctica - Despite its harsh conditions, Antarctica still supports several species of wildlife. These include krill (the most abundant marine fish in the Southern Ocean), whales and seals.
Birds that inhabit the frozen continent include penguins, which can be found both on pack ice and in the surrounding ocean. Their adaptation to extreme cold is called countercurrent heat exchange - their webbed feet allow blood circulation in and out of their feet so just enough warm blood remains inside to prevent frostbite.
This animal has evolved so well in Antarctica that it can even survive winters where temperatures dip below zero degrees Celsius. Furthermore, its antifreeze prevents its cells from contracting, potentially leading to incapacitation or even death from cold.
One of the few creatures that can survive Antarctica's harsh climate are tiny invertebrates known as Belgica antarctica. These invertebrates can be as small as one millimeter in size.
Mosquitoes can survive under rocks or in ice for nine months of the year, more than double their normal lifespan. Their bodies contain antifreeze that stops all their functions when frozen, but they still remain active when the ice melts again.
These tiny invertebrates lack wings, so they cannot fly. But they can maneuver around the ice like a butterfly does - making them an ideal research choice for scientists and explorers exploring Antarctica's harsh conditions.
Antarctica is an enchantingly beautiful place, yet it also has its challenges. This region of extreme cold, dryness and wind is remote with few permanent residents making travel there difficult. Nonetheless, thousands of scientists, explorers and researchers come here for research purposes every year.
Mosquitoes have only ever existed in two places on Earth: Antarctica and Iceland. These bloodsucking pests can transmit diseases like malaria to humans and animals alike, as well as cause allergies, rashes and hives.
According to an India Today report, mosquitoes have not established a breeding ground in Iceland due to its water and soil being unsuitable for them. Mosquitoes can survive in humid environments but cannot withstand the cold climate of Iceland.
Iceland experiences three major freezes and thaws throughout the year, which effectively kill off any mosquito eggs laid during cold temperatures. It's a blessing for Icelanders that they no longer need to worry about being bitten by these pesky creatures.
Another theory suggests the chemical composition of water and soil in Iceland does not provide ideal breeding conditions for mosquitoes. Scientists have been trying to figure out why there aren't any mosquitoes here, but are yet to find an explanation.
Furthermore, climate change is occurring and scientists anticipate that this could result in more mosquito breeding sites being established in Iceland. If this trend continues, mosquitoes could spread throughout the entire country.
As previously noted, Iceland lies between North American and Eurasian tectonic plates. The island is constantly being reshaped as it is being pulled away from these two plates - this process is known as volcanism, evident in the many canyons dotting the landscape.
In addition, Belgium is home to an unusual insect called Belgica antarctica, which looks very much like mosquitoes but doesn't bite or do any harm.
There are various theories as to why there are no mosquitoes in Iceland; the most popular one being that it's simply too cold for them. But there could be other explanations as well.
Many travelers crave a mosquito-free vacation, yet this is an unattainable goal in Mexico and the Caribbean.
Mosquito-borne diseases pose a significant danger to residents in Mexico and beyond, including zika, dengue fever and chikungunya. While some people experience only mild reactions from mosquito bites, others develop more serious and life-threatening ones.
Mosquito bites in Mexico can be an annoying nuisance and rarely cause harm, but it's wise to defend against them. The best way to do this is by using mosquito insecticide sprays sparingly and opting for repellents without synthetic chemicals or toxic ingredients.
Effective repellents that use natural plant oils and essential oils such as citronella, lavender, mint and lemon eucalyptus oil tend to be less irritating and more effective than synthetic insecticides.
If you're traveling to a place with high mosquito activity, wearing protective clothing such as a hat and other articles of clothing is recommended. Furthermore, purchasing a mosquito net and placing it over your bed can deter mosquitoes from entering your bedroom while you sleep.
Alternatively, you could consider investing in a house where there are few or no mosquitoes, particularly if you live at higher altitudes.
Arequipa, Peru is at 7,600 feet above sea level and thus ideal for avoiding mosquito problems. Furthermore, the rainy season here is relatively short and there's little wind - all of which help keep mosquitoes at bay.
Mosquitoes are not typically present on the islands of French Polynesia, which make for popular vacation destinations due to their stunning beaches and luxurious resorts.
Mosquitoes on the islands may not be a major concern for tourists visiting these locations for fun and relaxation, but if you plan to visit these countries frequently then investing in pest control systems that will eliminate any mosquitoes that may be present will help ensure a pleasant experience.
Many people's Caribbean vacation is a dream come true, but it can also be quite the chore if you don't enjoy having to fight off mosquitoes during your days on the beach. Fortunately, there are some places in which mosquitoes are virtually nonexistent.
Montserrat, located in the Caribbean British West Indies, is a rare mosquito-free haven. It boasts clean drinking water and low crime rates as well as welcoming locals who will ensure you have an enjoyable stay. Temperatures rarely dip below 20degC nor rise above 30degC here and you're always greeted by a cool breeze.
Montserrat, one of the smallest islands in the world, makes for a romantic honeymoon getaway. It offers plenty of secluded private beaches and an unspoiled natural environment for scuba and snorkeling adventures. Montserrat also has great diving and snorkelling spots in undamaged waters.
Another place where you may be able to avoid bites is the Turks and Caicos Islands, which boast only a few islands and experience one of the lowest rainfall averages in tropical Atlantic and Caribbean regions. Due to a lack of sheltering vegetation and natural bodies of fresh water, mosquito populations here tend to be quite low.
On these islands, it's not unusual for there to be a lot of rain during summer and hurricane seasons. However, the mosquito population remains relatively low during this period due to introduced Cuban tree frogs and natural enemies like dragonflies that help control these pests.
Although mosquito-borne diseases like dengue fever, chikungunya and Zika virus remain rare, there remains a risk for exposure. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have published a map displaying countries/territories where active local transmission of Zika has occurred; so if you plan to travel near any of these places in the near future, be sure to get vaccinated prior to leaving home.
In Barbados, the Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI) and Oceanic Nino Index (ONI) are closely tied to severe droughts. Droughts also cause an increase in Aedes aegypti mosquito species - responsible for dengue, chikungunya and zika disease outbreaks. A recent study conducted with climate and health stakeholders in Barbados and Dominica identified key strategies for promoting climate services to inform public health decision-making, such as engaging senior leadership from the health sector through partnerships between sectors and creating spaces for joint discussions regarding climate and health matters.